Assessing the Baking Characteristics of Mozzarella and Pizza Cheeses

Open Access

Year : 2023 | Volume :10 | Issue : 1 | Page : 22-43
By

    Bhargav M. Rajani

  1. Atanu H. Jana

  2. Satish C. Parmar

  1. M. Tech Scholar, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand, Gujarat, India
  2. Professor & Head, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand, Gujarat, India
  3. Assistant Professor, SMC College of Dairy Science, Anand, Gujarat, India

Abstract

Mozzarella/Pizza cheese is considered an important specialty cheese since it can be consumed directly or as an ingredient in other food products. It exhibits functional properties inclusive of baking properties such as Shred ability, meltability, fat leakage, stretchability, browning, etc. during their end use application in food. Assessing such properties of cheese is of significance since the cheese users at the restaurants and even the varied connoisseurs of cheese have ‘whims and wishes’ that the cheese should perform in a specific manner during their utility. The modification in the cheese making processes and the development of novelty cheese demands accurate functionality tests and the cheese-makers are required to correlate such data with their end use application. In this Review, the assessment of baking properties of Mozzarella and/or Pizza cheese using recommended procedures have been illustrated as a ready reckoner for the cheese makers.

Keywords: Functionality, Shred ability, meltability, fat leakage, stretchability, browning

[This article belongs to Research & Reviews : Journal of Dairy Science & Technology(rrjodst)]

How to cite this article: Bhargav M. Rajani, Atanu H. Jana, Satish C. Parmar , Assessing the Baking Characteristics of Mozzarella and Pizza Cheeses rrjodst 2023; 10:22-43
How to cite this URL: Bhargav M. Rajani, Atanu H. Jana, Satish C. Parmar , Assessing the Baking Characteristics of Mozzarella and Pizza Cheeses rrjodst 2023 {cited 2023 Jan 15};10:22-43. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/rrjodst/article=2023/view=92253

Full Text PDF Download

Browse Figures

References

1. Banks JM. The Technology of Low Fat Cheese Manufacture. Int J Dairy Technol. 2004; 57(4): 199–207p.
2. Walstra P, Walstra P, Wouters JT, Geurts TJ. Cheese Manufacture. Dairy Science and Technology. 2nd edn. CRC Press; Boca Raton, FL, USA. 2005. 603–8p.
3. Jana Atanu Indian Cheese Industry: Status and Future Scope. 2015. Retrieved from http://www.fnbnews.com/Top-News/indian-cheese-industry–status-and-future-scope-38262
4. FSSA. Food Safety and Standards Act (FSSA). 2011. Retrieved from http://www.fssai.gov.in
5. Citro V. Atypical Local Product Obtained from Buffalo Milk: La Mozzarella. Sci Tec Latt-Casearia. 1981; 32(1): 263–7p.
6. IDFA. Cheese Fact. A Publication of the International Dairy Foods Association (IDFA); 2001. Retrieved from http://www.idfa.org/news-views/media-kits/cheese /cheese-production.
7. Kosikowski FV, Mistry VV. Soft Italian Cheese – Mozzarella and Ricotta. Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods. Edwards Bros., Cornell University; 1997; 174–93p.
8. Jana A. Mozzarella Cheese and Pizza: The Compatible Partners. Beverage & Food World. 2001; 28(10): 14–19p.
9. Jana AH, Mandal PK. Manufacturing and Quality of Mozzarella Cheese: A Review. Int J Dairy Sci. 2011; 6(4): 199–226p.
10. Pizza Market in India. Retrieved from www.mbarendezvous.com/general-awareness/pizza-market-in-India/
11. Rankin S, Chen CM, Sommer D, Esposito A. Mozzarella and Scamorza Cheese. Handbook of Food Science, Technology and Engineering. 2006, Hui YH (Ed.), Vol. 4, CRC Press, Boca Raton. 150p.
12. Pilcher SW, Kindstedt PS. Survey of Mozzarella Cheese Quality at Restaurant End Use. J Dairy Sci. 1990; 73(6): 1644–47p.
13. Wadhwani R, Mc Manus WR, Mc Mahon DJ. Improvement in Melting and Baking Properties of Low-Fat Mozzarella Cheese. J Dairy Sci. 2011; 94(4): 1713–23p.
14. Rudan MA, Barbano DM. A Model of Mozzarella Cheese Melting and Browning during Pizza Baking. J Dairy Sci. 1998; 81(8): 2312–19p.
15. Wang HH, Sun DW. Correlation between cheese Meltability Determined with a Computer Vision Method and with Arnott and Schreiber Tests. J Food Sci. 2002b; 67(2): 745–49p.
16. Kindstedt PS, Rippe JK, Duthie CM. Measurement of Mozzarella Cheese Melting Properties by Helical Viscometry. J Dairy Sci. 1989; 72(12): 3117–22p.
17. Mc Mahon DJ, Oberg CJ, Mc Manus W. Functionality of Mozzarella Cheese: Production, Processing, Properties, Quality. Aust J Dairy Technol. 1993; 48(2): 99p.
18. Savage AA, Mullan WM. Quality Perceptions and Expectations of Mozzarella Cheese Producers and Pizza Manufacturers. Milchwissenschaft. 1996; 51(12): 677–79p.
19. Guinee TP, Feeney EP, Fox PF. Effect of Ripening Temperature on Low Moisture Mozzarella Cheese: Texture and Functionality. Le Lait. 2001; 81(4): 475–85p.
20. Jana AH, Tagalpallewar GP. Functional Properties of Mozzarella Cheese for Its End Use Application. J Food Sci Technol. 2017; 54(12): 3766–78p.
21. Sheehan JJ, Huppertz T, Hayes MG, Kelly AL, Beresford TP, Guinee TP. High Pressure Treatment of Reduced-Fat Mozzarella Cheese: Effects on Functional and Rheological Properties. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2005; 6(1): 73–81p.
22. Gulzar N, Sameen A, Muhammad Aadil R, Sahar A, Rafiq S, Huma N, Nadeem M, Arshad R, Muqadas Saleem I. Descriptive Sensory Analysis of Pizza Cheese made from Mozzarella and Semi-Ripened Cheddar Cheese under Microwave and Conventional Cooking. Foods. 2020; 9(2): 214p.
23. Shenana ME, Hassaan HM, Sania MA, Nasr WI. Using Ultra-Filtered (UF) Retentate in Mozzarella Cheese Making. Alexandria J Food Sci Technol. 2008; 2(1): 45–60p.
24. Zisu B, Shah NP. Texture Characteristics and Pizza Bake Properties of Low-Fat Mozzarella Cheese as Influenced by Pre-Acidification with Citric Acid and Use of Encapsulated and Ropy Exopolysaccharide Producing Cultures. Int Dairy J. 2007; 17(8): 985–97p.
25. Bertola NC, Califano AN, Bevilacqua AE, Zaritzky NE. Effect of Freezing Conditions on Functional Properties of Low Moisture Mozzarella Cheese. J Dairy Sci. 1996; 79(2): 185–90p.
26. Childs JL, Daubert CR, Stefanski L, Foegeding EA. Factors Regulating Cheese Shreddability. J Dairy Sci. 2007; 90(5): 2163–74p.
27. Kindstedt PS. Factors Affecting the Functional Characteristics of Unmelted and Melted Mozzarella Cheese. In Chemistry of Structure-Function Relationships in Cheese. Boston, MA: Springer; 1995; 27–41p.
28. Banville V, Morin P, Pouliot Y, Britten M. Physical Properties of Pizza Mozzarella Cheese Manufactured under Different Cheese-Making Conditions. J Dairy Sci. 2013; 96(8): 4804–15p.
29. Ni H, Guansekaran S. Image Processing Algorithm for Cheese Shred Evaluation. J Food Eng. 2004; 61(1): 37–45p.
30. Banville V, Morin P, Pouliot Y, Britten M. Shreddability of Pizza Mozzarella Cheese Predicted Using Physico-Chemical Properties. J Dairy Sci. 2014; 97(7): 4097–110p.
31. Apostolopoulos C, Marshall RJ. A Quantitative Method for the Determination of Shreddability of Cheese. J Food Qual. 1994; 17(2): 115–58p.
32. Nasser SA, Emam AO. Effect of Salting Technique on Shred ability, Texture Profile and Microstructure of the Pre-Acidified Cow’s Mozzarella Cheese. Adv Dairy Res. (ADR). 2019; 7(3): 1–9p.
33. Paquet A, Kalab M. Amino Acid Composition and Structure of Cheese Baked as a Pizza Ingredient in Conventional and Microwave Ovens. Food Microstructure (USA). 1988; 7(1): 93–103p.
34. Gunasekaran S, Ak MM. Cheese Rheology and Texture. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2003.
35. Cais-Sokolinska D, Pikul J. Cheese Meltability as Assessed by the Tube Test and Schreiber Test Depending on Fat Contents and Storage Time, Based on Curd-Ripened Fried Cheese. Czech J Food Sci. 2009; 27(5): 301–08p.
36. Poduval VS, Mistry VV. Manufacture of Reduced Fat Mozzarella Cheese Using Ultra Filtered Sweet Buttermilk and Homogenized Cream. J Dairy Sci. 1999; 82(1): 1–9p.
37. Koca N, Metin M. Textural, Melting and Sensory Properties of Low-Fat Fresh Kashar Cheeses Produced by Using Fat Replacers. Int Dairy J. 2004; 14(4): 365–73p.
38. Dai S, Jiang F, Shah NP, Corke H. Functional and Pizza Bake Properties of Mozzarella Cheese made with Konjac Glucomannan as a Fat Replacer. Food Hydrocoll. 2019; 92(2): 125–34p.
39. Banville V, Power N, Pouliot Y, Birtten M. Relationship between Baked-Cheese Sensory Properties and Melted-Cheese Physical Characteristics. J Texture Stud. 2015; 46(5): 321–24p.
40. Rukke EO, Abrahamsen RK, Schuller RB. Rheology, Texture and Meltability of Different Types of Cheese. Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society. 2018; 26(2): 211–18p.
41. Park J, Rosenau JR, Peleg M. Comparison of Four Procedures of Cheese Meltability Evaluation. J Food Sci. 1984; 49(4): 1158–70p.
42. Richoux R, Roset G, Famelart MH, Kerjean JR. Diversité de quelques proprietes fonctionnelles chaud de l’Emmentalfrançais. Le Lait. 2001; 81(4): 547–59p.
43. Muthukumarappan K, Wang YC, Gunasekaran S. Modified Schreiber Test for Evaluation of Mozzarella Cheese Meltability. J Dairy Sci. 1999; 82(6): 1068–71p.
44. Ma X, James B, Zhang L, Emanuelsson-Patterson E. Correlating Mozzarella Cheese Properties to Production Processes by Rheological, Mechanical and Microstructure Study: Meltability Study and Activation Energy. Procedia Food Sci. 2011; 1(1): 536–44p.
45. Arnott DR, Morris HA, Combs WB. Effect of Certain Chemical Factors on the Melting Quality of Process Cheese. J Dairy Sci. 1957; 40(8): 957–63p.
46. Inayat S, Ayaz M, Pasha TN, Abdullah M, Waheed A. Evaluation of Commercially Available Mozzarella Cheese for Its Melt and Stretching Behaviour through Farinograph-E. J Anim Plant Sci. 2014; 24(3): 770–73p.
47. Wang HH, Sun DW. Melting Characteristics of Cheese: Analysis of Effect of Cheese Dimensions Using Computer Vision Techniques. J Food Eng. 2002a; 52(3): 279–84p.
48. Prow LA, Metzger LE. Melt Analysis of Process Cheese Spread or Product Using a Rapid Visco Analyzer. J Dairy Sci. 2005; 88(4): 1277–87p.
49. Wang YC, Muthukumarappan K, Ak MM, Gunasekaran S. A Device for Evaluating Melt/Flow Characteristics of Cheeses. J Texture Stud. 1998; 29(1): 43–55p.
50. Kindstedt PS, Rippe JK. Rapid Quantitative Test for Free Oil (Oiling Off) in Melted Mozzarella Cheese. J Dairy Sci. 1990; 73(4): 867–73p.
51. Kindstedt PS, Fox PF. Modified Gerber Test for Free Oil in Melted Mozzarella Cheese. J Food Sci. 1991; 56(4): 1115–16p.
52. Cavella S, Chemin S, Masi P. Objective Measurement of the Stretchability of Mozzarella Cheese. J Texture Stud. 1992; 23(2): 185–94p.
53. Ak MM, Gunasekaran S. Measuring Elongational Properties of Mozzarella Cheese. J Texture Stud. 1995; 26(2): 147–60p.
54. Hicsasmaz Z, Shippelt L, Rizvi SS. Evaluation of Mozzarella Cheese Stretchability by the Ring-and-Ball Method. J Dairy Sci. 2004; 87(7): 1993–98p.
55. Fife RL, Mc Mahon DJ, Oberg CJ. Test for Measuring the Stretchability of Melted Cheese. J Dairy Sci. 2002; 85(12): 3539–45p.
56. Vincent PI. The Necking and Cold-Drawing of Rigid Plastics. Polymer. 1960; 1(1): 7–19p.
57. Guinee TP, O’ Callaghan DJ. The Use of a Simple Empirical Method for Objective Quantification of the Stretchability of Cheese on Cooked Pizza Pies. J Food Eng. 1997; 31(2): 147–61p.
58. Babcock EJ. Absorption Photography and X-Rays. Sci Am. 1896; 75(7): 155p.
59. Moyes BL. Correlation between the USU Stretch Test and the Pizza Fork Test. 2003. Cited from https://www.digitalcommons.usu.edu
60. USDA. Specifications for Mozzarella Cheeses. Retrieved from www.ams.usda.gov/sites/ default/files/media/mozarella.pdf.
61. Ma X, James B, Zhang L, Emanuelsson-Patterson EA. The Stretchability of Mozzarella Cheese Evaluated by a Temperature Controlled 3-Prong Hook Test. J Dairy Sci. 2012; 95(10): 5561–68p.
62. Walsh CD, Guinee TP, Harrington D, Mehra RA, Murphy J, Fitzgerald RJ. Cheesemaking, Compositional and Functional Characteristics of Low-Moisture Part-Skim Mozzarella Cheese from Bovine Milks containing қ-casein AA, AB or BB genetic variants. J Dairy Res. 1998; 65(1): 307–15p.
63. Moynihan AC, Govindasamy-Lucey S, Jaeggi JJ, Johnson ME, Lucey JA, Mc Sweeney PL. Effect of Camel Chymosin on the Texture, Functionality, and Sensory Properties of Low-Moisture, Part-Skim Mozzarella Cheese. J Dairy Sci. 2014; 97(1): 85–96p.
64. Bley ME, Johnson ME, Olson NF. Factors Affecting Non-Enzymatic Browning of Process Cheese. J Dairy Sci. 1985; 68(3): 555–61p.
65. Thomas MA. Browning Reaction in Cheddar Cheese. Aust J Dairy Technol. 1969; 24(4): 185p.
66. Matzdorf B, Cuppett SL, Keeler L, Hutkins RW. Browning of Mozzarella Cheese during High Temperature Pizza Baking. J Dairy Sci. 1994; 77(10): 2850–3p.
67. Wang HH, Sun DW. Assessment of Cheese Browning Affected by Baking Conditions Using Computer Vision. J Food Eng. 2003; 56(4): 339–45p.
68. Ma X, James B, Balaban MO, Zhang L, Emanuelsson-Patterson EA. Quantifying Blistering and Browning Properties of Mozzarella Cheese. Part II: Cheese with Different Salt and Moisture Contents. Food Res Int. 2013; 54(1): 917–21p.
69. Dai S, Jiang F, Corke H, Shah NP. Physico-Chemical and Textural Properties of Mozzarella Cheese Made with Konjac Glucomannan as a Fat Replacer. Food Res Int. 2018; 107(1): 691–99p.
70. Lukinac J, Jukic M, Mastanjevic K, Lucan M. Application of Computer Vision and Image Analysis Method in Cheese Quality Evaluation: A Review. Ukr Food J. 2018; 7(2): 192–214p.
71. Ma X, Balaban MO, Zhang L, Emanuelsson‐Patterson EA, James B. Quantification of Pizza Baking Properties of Different Cheeses, and Their Correlation with Cheese Functionality. J Food Sci. 2014; 79(8): 1528–34p.
72. Fernandez A, Kosikowski FV. Low Moisture Mozzarella Cheese from Whole Milk Retentates of Ultrafiltration. J Dairy Sci. 1986; 69(8): 2011–17p.


Regular Issue Open Access Article
Volume 10
Issue 1
Received December 23, 2020
Accepted December 28, 2020
Published January 15, 2023