Publishing Models

Journal Publishing Models

Last updated: 2022-04-30

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Authors submitting primary research articles in the STM field have several options for publishing their research. These options include:

Traditional Subscription-Based Publication

Traditional Subscription-Based Publication refers to the traditional method of publishing academic research, in which readers pay for access to scholarly articles through subscription fees charged by publishers. In this model, readers typically access articles through libraries or academic institutions that have paid for access to a publisher's Journal or database.

Under the traditional subscription-based model, authors generally do not pay for the publication of their research. This includes the cost of peer review, copyediting, layout and design, and distribution through print and digital channels.

In order to be recognized as a subscription-based Journal, a Journal must meet certain criterias. These criteria include:

  • Access Control: Subscription-based articles are not freely available to the general public. Access is restricted to those who have paid for a subscription or who have access through an institutional subscription.
  • Paywall: Subscription-based articles are typically behind a paywall, which is a barrier that prevents non-subscribers from accessing the full text of the article.
  • Copyright: In a subscription-based model, the publisher typically retains copyright ownership of the article.
  • Peer-Review: Subscription-based Journals generally follow a rigorous peer-review process to ensure the quality of published articles.
  • Editorial Board: Subscription-based Journals often have an editorial board made up of experts in the field who oversee the peer-review process and make decisions about which articles to publish.
  • Online: Subscription-based Journals may be available in online formats, though the trend is towards online-only publication.

Open-Access Publication

Open-Access Publishing refers to a publishing model where research articles are made freely available to readers without paywalls or subscription fees. This allows anyone with an internet connection to access and read the research, regardless of their institutional affiliation or ability to pay.

Open access publishing has become increasingly popular in recent years as a means of promoting knowledge sharing and accessibility to scientific research. It also aligns with the principles of open science, which emphasize transparency, collaboration, and the free flow of information.

Hybrid Publication

Hybrid Publishing is a publishing model that combines traditional subscription-based publishing with open access publishing. This model allows authors to choose whether they want to make their articles freely available to readers by paying an article processing fee.
In hybrid publishing, a journal still operates primarily on a subscription-based model, where readers must pay a fee to access the journal's content. However, authors can choose to make their article open access by paying an additional fee, which allows their article to be freely accessible to anyone with an internet connection.

Transformative Publication

Transformative publishing, also known as transformative agreements, is a publishing model that aims to accelerate the transition from subscription-based publishing to fully open access publishing. This model is designed to encourage publishers and institutions to work together to achieve a sustainable and equitable open access publishing ecosystem.

Under a transformative publishing agreement, institutions commit to paying a fee to publishers in exchange for publishing their articles open access. These agreements often include provisions for offsetting the cost of publishing open access articles by redirecting subscription fees towards open access publishing costs.

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