Fire insurance means insurance against any loss caused by fire. Fire insurance has no direct relation to saving but is always a question of indemnity for property. The principle of indemnity, which arises under common law, ensures that the insured does not recover more than actual loss suffered by him/her. The principle of indemnity gives rise to the principles of subrogation and contribution which ensure that an insured does not gain under the insurance contract. The application of these principles to a contract of fire insurance raises imminent questions about concepts such as policy coverage or depreciation, status of salvage value, underinsurance and limited interest. A Standard Fire and Special Perils Policy must be discussed in the light of these nuances. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide a clear picture as to the nature and purpose of fire insurance by studying the application of principle of indemnity and incidentally, the principles of subrogation and contribution to a contract of fire insurance. The discussion leads to results which help in understanding the settled position taken by courts regarding the aspects of fire insurance contract. Further, based upon the discussion, ways and methods have been recommended to resolve the studied issues and make the fire insurance regime in India more efficient and efficacious. The paper has value for all stakeholders, especially insurance companies and its customers as its ultimate aim is to help in eliminating uncertainty in fire insurance contract which would help both, insured and insurer, in better implementation of a fire insurance contract.
In recent years, an increasing number of people have begun to focus their attention on the environmental impacts that are caused by the widespread use of therapeutic polymeric composites that are generated from fossil energy. Another factor that probably contributes to the short shelf life of biomedical polymer products is the fact that many of them are designed to be used just once before being discarded. When a biomedical polymer product goes over its sell-by date, it must often be burned before being discarded, increasing carbon dioxide emissions (CO2). By ultimately replacing their unsustainable fossil-based equivalents, biomedical goods based on polymers produced from CO2 fixation would improve CO2 recycling in this industry and aid in the mitigation of the greenhouse effect. However, the bulk of presently available polymer materials manufactured from renewable raw materials do not satisfy these expectations due to a number of property deficiencies, and the superiority and stuff values for biomedical devices are constantly expanding. The materials don’t have the essential characteristics to satisfy the requirements. Many people are trying to apply nanotechnology in this field due to these problems. In addition to discussing replicable CO2-fixed polymer-based nanocomposites that may be used in biological applications, this work gives a number of intriguing suggestions for further research areas in this field.
Using finite element modeling, this study presents a buckling analysis and total deformation assessment of a concrete column, a column made of reinforced cement concrete (RCC), and a concrete column enhanced with Carbon Fiber-reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates (FEM). Utilizing the ansys18.1 software, a comprehensive analysis is carried out for columns that have a variety of slenderness ratios to arrive at a more accurate performance estimation. Because they can support the most weight overall, RCC columns are among the most important components of a building’s structure. On the other hand, because of the enormous compressive load, these structures risk failing owing to buckling. There is a greater likelihood of rapid buckling occurring in the columns that have a high slender ratio. As a result, it is essential to investigate and evaluate the effects of an excessive load on several separate columns, each of which has a distinct slenderness ratio. For this study, the slenderness ratios were determined to be 20, 30, and 40 for concrete columns, RCC columns, and RCC columns reinforced with CFRP. The findings indicate that the load-bearing capability of the columns can be improved by increasing the quantity of CFRP sheets used in their construction.
IoT or Internet of Things has become a burning sensation in today’s world. In the present times each device that we use has the capability to connect to multiple devices and this opens a host of opportunities for both the developers as well as the end consumers to develop and manufacture a variety of devices which can make our day-to-day operations much easier. In the present study, an overview of IoT is given in general, along with its literature review. This is followed by a discussion on Arduino which is employed to develop the devices using IoT. Also, a brief overview is given about various sensors which act as building blocks of any IoT system. Furthermore, an effort is made to demonstrate IoT implementation using Arduino, which may be used in a variety of useful devices. In the present case, IoT is used to develop a motion sensor alarm and a temperature-controlled selfregulating system. The general drawback of IoT is instead discussed. Overall, the study is meant to provide guidance to anyone who is looking to explore the possibilities of IoT using Arduino.
Hospitals are significant buildings where people receive medical care around-the-clock. An internal hazard like a fire is more disruptive and puts more pressure on hospital authorities to ensure the safety of the patients and visitors who are unfamiliar building and the procedures to follow in case of a fire. In order to keep the patients safe in the event of a fire, every healthcare facility needs to have a plan in place. Building fire safety has become a major concern as a result of the fact that the current fire protection systems do not fully address all current fire hazards. Facility Management is beneficial in this instance. Through scheduled and periodic maintenance, facility management keeps places in good working order. The strategy used when providing services might range from offering entirely individualized services to offering services that are universally applicable. Each facility is reliant on the others, and each service is interdependent to each other. Standardization will place a focus on dependability, lowering defects, and saving costs within services. Numerous factors affect how well fire safety is managed, but the fundamental problem is that different services lack consistent procedures. This study proposes guidelines & recommendations that can be incorporated in the contractual obligations during the award of facility management services which can be instrumental for enhancing the fire and life safety of the building.
The persistence of fire outbreaks in markets is a problem in Nigeria and the repetition of this problem is very frequent at Port Harcourt in Rivers State. To curtail this problem, research was made on the three major markets in Port Harcourt with the aim of determining the fire resistivity of their door and window materials, in order to generate guidelines for designing doors and windows of market buildings in Nigeria. The research made use of desktop study as the instrument for data collection. Then, the data were analyzed and checked by using content analysis technique, so as to validate the results. Among the findings are uses of ordinary windowpanes and their aluminium frames in the design of market buildings are not good practices against fires. Among the recommended guidelines are the design of all the window panes of market buildings must be metal type; the design of all the window frames of market buildings must be steel type, in order to ensure good practices against fires in Nigerian markets. Alternatively, the design of all the window panels of market buildings must be made up of any other fire-resistant material with a minimum of two hours resistance, in order to also ensure good practices against fires in Nigerian markets.