A Review on Diagnosis and Management of Conjunctivitis

Year : 2024 | Volume :01 | Issue : 02 | Page : 35-46
By

Mahima R. Patil

Mansi B. Patil

Hitendra S. Chaudhari

Sunil P. Pawar

Rahul B. Lovhare

Roshan M. Chaudhari

Abstract

Conjunctivitis, typically recounted as crimson eye, is a super ocular circumstance affecting men and ladies of all ages. This abstract aims to summarize the findings of a comprehensive study that delves into the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and management strategies for conjunctivitis. A multifaceted approach was employed, including a systematic literature review of conjunctivitis-related studies, clinical observations, and interviews with leading ophthalmologists. The various cases were analysed to assess demographic patterns, etiological factors, and treatment outcomes. Our study reveals that conjunctivitis presents with a spectrum of etiologies, including viral, bacterial, allergic, and environmental triggers. The pathogenesis of conjunctivitis involves complex interactions between infectious agents, host immune responses, and environmental factors. Viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious and typically self-limiting, whereas bacterial conjunctivitis often necessitates antibiotic therapy. Allergic conjunctivitis, delivered on via capability of allergens such as pollen or dust, responds applicable to antihistamines and environmental modifications. Additionally, the study highlights emerging trends in conjunctivitis management, including the use of novel antiviral agents and the potential for targeted immunotherapy.

Keywords: Conjunctivitis, pink eye, pathogenesis, management, viral conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis, ophthalmology

[This article belongs to Recent Trends in Infectious Diseases(rtid)]

How to cite this article: Mahima R. Patil, Mansi B. Patil, Hitendra S. Chaudhari, Sunil P. Pawar, Rahul B. Lovhare, Roshan M. Chaudhari. A Review on Diagnosis and Management of Conjunctivitis. Recent Trends in Infectious Diseases. 2024; 01(02):35-46.
How to cite this URL: Mahima R. Patil, Mansi B. Patil, Hitendra S. Chaudhari, Sunil P. Pawar, Rahul B. Lovhare, Roshan M. Chaudhari. A Review on Diagnosis and Management of Conjunctivitis. Recent Trends in Infectious Diseases. 2024; 01(02):35-46. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/rtid/article=2024/view=144912


References

  1. Shekhawat NS, Shtein RM, Blachley TS, Stein JD.Antibiotic prescription fills for acute conjunctivitis among Enrollees in a large United States managed care network. Ophthalmology 2017; 124:1099–1107.
  2. Smith AF, Way caster C. Estimate of the direct and indirect Annual cost of bacterial conjunctivitis in the United States.BMC Ophthalmol 2009;9:13.
  3. Kaufman HE. Adenovirus advances: new Diagnostic and therapeutic options. Curr OpinOphthalmol. 2011; 22(4):290-293.
  4. Alfonso SA, Fawley JD, Alexa Lu X. Conjunctivitis. Prim Care. 2015 Sep; 42(3):325-45.
  5. Azari AA, Barney NP. Conjunctivitis: a systematic review of diagnosis and treatment. JAMA. 2013 Oct 23; 310(16):1721-9.
  6. Høvding G. Acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008 Feb; 86(1):5-17.
  7. Shields T, Sloane PD. A comparison of eye problems in primary care and ophthalmology practices. Fam Med. 1991 Sep-Oct; 23(7):544-6.
  8. Ryder EC, Benson S. Conjunctivitis. In: Stat Pearls. Treasure Island (FL): Stat Pearls Publishing LLC; 2020.
  9. Narayana S, McGee S. Bedside diagnosis of the ’Red Eye’: a systematic review. Am J Med 2015; 128:1220–1224.e1221?
  10. Everitt H, Little P. How do GPs diagnose and manage acute infective conjunctivitis? A GP survey. Fam Pract 2002; 19:658–660.
  11. O’Callaghan RJ. The Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus Eye Infections. Pathogens. 2018 Jan 10;7(1)
  12. Chu WK, Choi HL, Bhat AK, Jhanji V. Pterygium: new insights. Eye (Lond). 2020 Jun; 34(6):1047-1050.
  13. Leung AKC, Hon KL, Wong AHC, Wong AS. Bacterial Conjunctivitis in Childhood: Etiology, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, and Management. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2018; 12(2):120-127.
  14. Azari AA, Arabi A. Conjunctivitis: A Systematic Review. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2020 Jul-Sep; 15(3):372-395.
  15. Bielory L, Meltzer EO, Nichols KK, Melton R, Thomas RK, Bartlett JD. An algorithm for the management of allergic conjunctivitis. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2013 Sep-Oct;34(5):408-20.
  16. Frary J, Petersen PT, Pareek M. Hutchinson’s sign of ophthalmic zoster. Clin Case Rep. 2020 Jan; 8(1):219-220.
  17. Leibowitz HM. The red eye. N Engl J Med. 2000 Aug 03; 343(5):345-51.
  18. Mahmood AR, Narang AT. Diagnosis and management of the acute red eye. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008 Feb; 26(1):35-55, vi.
  19. Puri LR, Shrestha GB, Shah DN, Chaudhary M, Thakur A. Ocular manifestations in herpes zoster ophthalmic us. Nepal J Ophthalmol. 2011Jul-Dec; 3(2):165-71.
  20. Liesegang TJ. Herpes zoster ophthalmic us natural history, risk factors, clinical presentation, and morbidity. Ophthalmology. 2008 Feb; 115(2 Suppl):S3-12.
  21. Stenson S, Newman R, Fedukowicz H. Laboratory Studies in acute conjunctivitis. Arch Ophthalmology1982; 100:1275–1277.
  22. Fitch CP, Rapoza PA, Owens S, Murillo-Lopez F, JohnsonRA, Quinn TC, et al. Epidemiology and diagnosis of acute Conjunctivitis at an inner-city hospital. Ophthalmology 1989:96:1215-1220
  23. Newman H, Gooding C. Viral ocular manifestations: a broad overview. Rev Med Virol 2013; 23:281–294.
  24. Lim KH, Yin-Murphy M. Epidemic conjunctivitis in Singapore in 1970 and 1971. Singapore Med J 1973; 14:86–89.
  25. Kono R, Sasagawa A, Miyamura K, Tajiri E. Serologic Characterization and sero-epidemiologic studies on acute Haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) virus. Am J Epidemiol 1975; 101:444–457.
  26. Zhang L, Zhao N, Huang X, Jin X, Geng X, Chan T-C, et al. Molecular epidemiology of acute hemorrhagicConjunctivitis caused by coxsackie a type 24 variant in China, 2004-2014. Sci Rep 2017; 7:45202.
  27. Høvding G. Acute bacterial conjunctivitis. ActaOphthalmol. 2008; 86(1):5-17.
  28. Mannis MJ, Plotnik RD. Bacterial conjunctivitis. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. DuanesOphthalmology on CD-ROM. Lippincott Williams &Wilkins; 2006.
  29. Epling J, Smucny J. Bacterial conjunctivitis. ClinEvid. 2005; 2(14):756-761.
  30. Disorders of the conjunctiva and limbus. In: Yannof J, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 2ndSpain: Mosby; 2004:397-412.
  31. Bielory BP, O’Brien TP, and Bielory L. Management Of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis: guide to therapy. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012; 90(5):399-407.
  32. Baudouin C, Pisella PJ, Fillacier K, et al. Ocular surface inflammatory changes induced by topical antiglaucomaDrugs: human and animal studies. Ophthalmology1999; 106:556–563.
  33. Baudouin C, Labbe A, Liang H, Pauly A, Brignole-Baudouin F. Preservatives in eye drops: the good, the bad And the ugly. Prog Retin Eye Res 2010; 29:312–334.
  34. Avery RK, Baker AS. Albert and Jakobiec’s Principle and Practice of Ophthalmology. 3rd ed Saunders Elsevier; Philadelphia, PA: 2008. Chlamydial disease; pp. 4791–4801.
  35. Tripathi KD. 2000. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, Fourth edition; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd, New Delhi.
  36. Tuomela R. 1987. Chapter 4- Science, Protoscience, and Pseudoscience; In Pitt JC, Marcello P, Rational Changes in Science: Essays on Scientific Reasoning, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science (Springer), pp. 83–101.
  37. Varsney RL. 2000. Marketing Management, 2nd edition; Dr. S.L. Gupta Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi.
  38. Wells JC. 2009. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, London: Pearson Longman. Bio-social Issues in Health pp. 129 by Anil Kishore Sinha.
  39. Narayana S, McGee S. Bedside diagnosis of the ’Red Eye’: A systematic review. Am J Med 2015; 128:1220–1224.e1221
  40. Wilson-Holt N, Dart JK. Thiomersal keratoconjunctivitis, Frequency, clinical spectrum and diagnosis. Eye1989; 3:581–587.
  41. Fitch CP, Rapoza PA, Owens S, Murillo-Lopez F, JohnsonRA, Quinn TC, et al. Epidemiology and diagnosis of acute Conjunctivitis at an inner-city hospital. Ophthalmology1989; 96:1215–1220.
  42. Cronau H, Kankanala RR, Mauger T. Diagnosis and Management of red eye in primary care. Am Fam Phys2010; 81:137–144.
  43. Katusic D, Petricek I, Mandic Z, et al. Azithromycin vs doxycycline in the treatment of Inclusion conjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol.2003; 135(4):447-451.
  44. Szaflik J, Szaflik JP, Kaminska A; Levofloxacin Bacterial Conjunctivitis Dosage Study Group. Clinical and microbiological efficacy of levofloxacin Administered three times a day for the treatment of Bacterial conjunctivitis. Eur J Ophthalmol.2009; 19(1):1-9.
  45. Owen CG, Shah A, Henshaw K, et al. Topical Treatments for seasonal allergic conjunctivitis: Systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy and Effectiveness. Br J Gen Pract. 2004;54(503):
  46. Greiner JV, Minno G. A placebo-controlled Comparison of ketotifen fumarate and nedocromilSodium ophthalmic solutions for the prevention of ocular itching with the conjunctival allergen Challenge model. Clin Ther. 2003; 25(7):1988-2005.
  47. Workowski KA, Berman S; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted Diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010; 59(RR-12):1-110.
  48. Borkar DS, Acharya NR, Leong C, Lalitha P, Srinivasan M, Oldenburg CE, Cevallos V, Lietman TM, Evans DJ, Fleiszig SM. Cytotoxic clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa identified during the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial show elevated resistance to fluoroquinolones. BMC Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr 24; 14:54.
  49. Uo IC.adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis diagnosis, management, and prevention. Curr ophthalmol Rep 2019; 7:118-127.
  50. Monnerat N, Bossart W, Thiel MA. [Povidone-iodine for treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis: an in vitro study]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2006 May; 223(5):349-52.

Regular Issue Subscription Review Article
Volume 01
Issue 02
Received February 26, 2024
Accepted March 22, 2024
Published May 3, 2024