BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Strychnos innocua ROOT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC-MS)

Year : 2023 | Volume : 01 | Issue : 01 | Page : 9-14
By

    Alagbe John Olujimi

  1. Researcher, Department of Animal Nutrition and Biochemistry,, Sumitra Research Institute, Gujarat, India

Abstract

Medicinal plants are of great relevance with endless pharmaceutical and therapeutic properties. They are source of wide array of secondary metabolites or bioactive compounds/phytochemicals (phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, steroids and saponins) which are capable of discharging numerous biological functions (antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, antifungal, anti-fibrotic, immune-modulatory, cytotoxic, antipyretic, antitumor, antihelminthic, antiprotozoal, antibacterial and so on). The use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis in identifying the bioactive compounds in ethanolic extract of Strychnos innocua root is a fundamental technique in quantifying the unknown samples, trace elements and contaminants leading to the discovery of novel compounds of pharmaceutical and biomedical importance. Result obtained showed that Strychnos innocua root extract contains 39 bioactive compounds with α-Cubebene (20.09 %) having the highest concentration followed by Dibutyl benzene -1,2 – dicarboxylate (10.17 %), β-Elemenone (10.02 %), 4-Methoxy-2-nitroformanilide (7.21 %), 1-Methyl cyclopropane methanol (5.96 %), 1, 3 propanediol, 2-ethyl 2-hydroxymethyl (3.71 %), Azelaic acid (2.87 %), Glycidol stearate (2.85 %), Chloromethyl 2-chlorodecanoate (2.83 %) and γ-terpinene (2.56 %) respectively. The remaining 29 bioactive compounds have concentrations less than 2 %. It was concluded that all the compounds observed are sources of medication that can be used traditionally in the treatment of human and animal diseases.

Keywords: Strychnos innocua, Phytochemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Therapeutics, Gas chromatography

[This article belongs to International Journal of Biochemistry and Biomolecule Research(ijbbr)]

How to cite this article: Alagbe John Olujimi BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Strychnos innocua ROOT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC-MS) ijbbr 2023; 01:9-14
How to cite this URL: Alagbe John Olujimi BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Strychnos innocua ROOT USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC-MS) ijbbr 2023 {cited 2023 Jan 31};01:9-14. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/ijbbr/article=2023/view=128229

References

  1. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM. Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford university press, USA; 2015.
  2. Oloruntola, O.D., Agbede, J.O., Ayodele, S.O, Adeyeye, S.A and Agbede, J.O. (2018). Performance, haemato-biochemical indices and antioxidant status of growing rabbits fed on diets supplemented with Mucuna pruriens leaf meal. World Rabbit Science, 26: 277-285.
  3. Muritala, Daniel Shittu., Alagbe, J.O., Ojebiyi, O.O., Ojediran, T.K and Rafiu, T.A. (2022). Growth performance and haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens given varied concentrations of Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract in place of conventional antibiotics. Animal Science and Genetics 18(2): 57-71.
  4. Alagbe John Olujimi, Ramalan Sadiq Muhammad., Shittu Muritala Daniel and Olagoke Olayemi Christiana (2022). Effect of Trichilia monadelpha stem bark extract on the fatty acid composition of rabbit’s thigh meat. Journal of Environmental Issues and Climate Change 1(1): 63-71.
  5. Ruth, T.N, Anita, R.L., Loveness, K.N, Vincenzo, F and Ruud V (2017). Local processing and nutritional composition of indigenous fruits: the case of monkey orange (Strychnos spp.) from Southern Africa. Food Research, 33(2):123–142.
  6. Alagbe, J.O., Shittu, M.D and Tanimomo, Babatunde K. (2022). Influence of Anogeissusleio carpus stem bark on the fatty acid composition in meat of broiler chickens. European Journal of Life Safety and Stability 14(22): 13-22.
  7. Vasquez-Ocmin, P., Cojean, S., Rengifo, C., Suyyagh-Albouz, S., Guerra, C.A.A, Pomel, S and Maciuk, A (2017). Antiprotozoal activity of medicinal plants used by Iquitos-Nauta road communities in Loreto (Peru). Journal of Ethno pharmacology, 4(61): 1-9.
  8. Alagbe JO. USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AS A PANACEA TO POULTRY PRODUCTION AND FOOD SECURITY: A REVIEW. American Journal of Technology and Applied Sciences. 2022 Apr 26;1:24-36.
  9. Singh Sharma., Alagbe Olujimi John., Liu Xing., Sharma Ram and Kumar Amita (2022). Comparative analysis of ethanolic Juniperus thurifera leaf, stem bark and root extract using gas chromatography and mass spectroemetry. International Journal of Agriculture and Animal Production, 2(6): 18-27.
  10. Agubosi, O.C.P., Alexander, James and Alagbe, J.O. (2022). Influence of dietary inclusion of Sunflower (Helianthus annus) oil on growth performance and oxidative status of broiler chicks. Central Asian Journal of Medical and Natural Sciences 2(7): 187-195.
  11. Agubosi, O.C.P., Soliu, M.B and Alagbe, J.O. (2022). Effect of dietary inclusion levels of Moringa oleifera oil on the growth performance and nutrient retention of broiler starter chicks. Central Asian Journal of Theoretical and Applied Sciences 3(3): 30-39.
  12. Oluwafemi, R.A., Lawal Aisha Omolade., Adelowo, Samad Adetope and Alagbe, J.O. (2021). Effects of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil on carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of broiler chicken. Texas Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 2(11): 180-188.
  13. Adewale, A.O., Alagbe, J.O., Adeoye, Adekemi. O. (2021). Dietary Supplementation of Rauvolfia Vomitoria Root Extract as A Phytogenic Feed Additive in Growing Rabbit Diets: Haematology and serum biochemical indices. International Journal of Orange Technologies, 3(3): 1-12.
  14. Musa, B., Alagbe, J.O., Adegbite Motunrade Betty, Omokore, E.A. (2020). Growth performance, caeca microbial population and immune response of broiler chicks fed aqueous extract of Balanites aegyptiaca and Alchornea cordifolia stem bark mixture. United Journal for Research and Technology, 2(2):13-21.
  15. Shittu, M.D and Alagbe, J.O. (2020). Phyto-nutritional profiles of broom weed (Sida acuta) leaf extract. International Journal of Integrated Education. 3(11): 119-124
  16. Olafadehan OA, Oluwafemi RA, Alagbe JO. Performance, haemato-biochemical parameters of broiler chicks administered Rolfe ( Daniellia oliveri) leaf extract as an antibiotic alternative. Drug Discovery. 2020;14(33):135-45.
  17. Omokore, E.O and Alagbe, J.O. (2019). Efficacy of dried Phyllantus amarus leaf meal as an herbal feed additive on the growth performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of growing rabbits. International Journal of Academic Research and Development. 4(3): 97-104.
  18. Alagbe, J.O (2021). Dietary Supplementation of Rauvolfia Vomitoria Root Extract as A Phytogenic Feed Additive in Growing Rabbit Diets: Growth Performance and Caecal Microbial Population. Concept in Dairy and Veterinary Sciences. 4(2):2021.
  19. Agubosi, O.C.P., Wika, B.K and Alagbe, J.O. (2022). Effect of dietary inclusion of Sunflower (Helianthus annus) oil on the growth performance of broiler finisher chickens. European Journal of Modern Medicine and Practice, 2(5): 1-10.
  20. Alagbe, J.O. (2021). Prosopis africana stem bark as an alternative to antibiotic feed additives in broiler chicks diets: Performance and Carcass characteristics. Journal of Multidimensional Research and Reviews, 2(1): 64-77.
  21. Orwa, C.A., Mutua, K.R., Jamnadass, R and Anthony, S (2009) Agroforestree database: a tree reference. Retrieved from http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases. asp
  22. Alagbe, J.O. (2021). Daniellia oliveri leaf extracts as an alternative to antibiotic feed additives in broiler chicken diets: Meat Quality and Fatty acid composition. Indonasian Journal of Innovation and Applied Sciences 1(3): 177-186.
  23. Lee, S.W., Wendy, W., Julius, Y.F.S and Desy, F.S (2011). Characterization of antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer properties and chemical composition of Michelia champaca seed and fower extracts. Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 4(1):19–24
  24. Alagbe, J.O (2020). Chemical evaluation of proximate, vitamin and amino acid profile of leaf, stem bark and roots of Indigofera tinctoria. International Journal on Integrated Education. 3(10): 150-157.
  25. Igbal, H., Moneebur, R.K., Riazullah, Z.M., Naeem, K.F.A and Zahoor, U. (2011). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. African Journal of Pharmacology, 5(6):746–750.
  26. Alagbe, J.O (2020). Caecal Microbial Population of Growing Grass Cutters (Thyronoyms Swinderianus) Fed Phyllantus Amarus and Pilogstigma Thonngii Leaf Meal Mixture as Partial Replacement for Soya Bean Meal. Concept of Dairy and Veterinary Sciences. 3(5): 350 – 355.
  27. Hongxiang, S., Cuirong, S and Yuanjian, P (2005). Cytotoxic activity and constituents of the volatile oil from the roots of Patrinia scabra Bunge. Chemical Biodiversity, 2(10):1351–1357
  28. Alagbe, J.O. (2022). Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy of Juniperus phoenice stem bark extract and its influence on the haemato-biochemical values of growing rabbits. British Scientific Periodical 1(1): 18-33.
  29. Hirotani, H., Ohigashi, M., Kobayashi, K, Koshimizu, K and Takahashi, E. (1991). Inactivation of T5 phage by cis-vaccenic acid, an antivirus substance from Rhodopseudomonas capsulate, and by unsaturated fatty acids and related alcohols. FEMS Microbiological Letters, 77(1):13–17.
  30. Hoet, S., Stevigny, C., Herent, M., Quetin-Leclercq, J. (2006). Antitrypanosomal compounds from the leaf essential oil of Strychnos spinosa. Planta Medicine, 72:480–482.
  31. Alagbe, J.O., Zubairu Habiba., Adedeji, O.M., Bamigboye, S and Dora Agbonika (2022). Influence of Juniperus thurifera root extract on the nutrient digestibility and caecal microbial count of growing rabbits. Web of Synergy: International Interdisciplinary Research Journal 1(1): 5-17.
  32. Oluwafemi, R.A., Agubosi, O.C.P and Alagbe, J.O. (2021). Proximate, minerals, vitamins and amino acid composition of Prosopis africana (African mesquite) seed oil. Asian Journal of Advances in Research 11(1): 21-27.
  33. Oluwafemi, R.A., Uankhoba, I.P and Alagbe, J.O. (2021). Effects of turmeric oil as a dietary supplements on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chicken. International Journal of Orange Technologies, 3(4): 1-9.
  34. Oluwafemi, R.A., Uankhoba, I.P and Alagbe, J.O. (2021). Effects of turmeric oil as a dietary supplement on the haematology and serum biochemical indices of broiler chickens. Bioinformatics and Proteomics Open Access Journal 5(1): 000138.
  35. Oluwafemi, R.A., Daniel, S.E and Alagbe, J.O. (2021). Haematology and serum biochemical indices of broiler chicks fed different inclusion levels of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil mixture. International Journal of Discoveries and Innovations in Applied Sciences 1(4): 20-26.
  36. Hamisu Ibrahim., Ahmed Jibrin Uttu., Muhammad, Sani Sallau and Ogunkemi, Risikat Agbeke Iyun, L. (2021). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of ethyl acetate root bark extract of Strychnos innocua (Delile). Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, (2021) 10:65.
  37. Al-Wathnani H, Ismet A, Tahmaz RR, Al-Dayel TH, Bakir MA (2012). Bioactivity of natural compounds isolated from cyanobacteria and green algae against human pathogenic bacteria and yeast. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(18): 3425–3433.
  38. Asuzu C.U and Nwosu, M.O (2020). Studies of the wood of some Nigeria alkaloid-rich Strychnos species. Journal of Horticulture, 12(2):57–62.
  39. WHO (1996). Annex II. Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines (WHO Technical Report Series No. 863), Geneva.
  40. Hines DA, Eckman K. Indigenous multipurpose trees of Tanzania: uses and economic benefits for people. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Cultural Survival Canada; 1993.
  41. Maghembe, J.A. (1994). Germination studies on seed of fruit trees indigenous to Malawi. Forest Ecology and Management, 64(2-3): 111-125.
  42. Nascimento, G.G.F., Lacatelli, J., Freitas, P.C and Silva, G.L (2000). Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Brazil Journal Microbiology, 31(4):886-891
  43. Okeke, M.I., Iroegbu, C.U., Eze, E.N, Okoli, A.S and Esimone, C.O (2001). Evaluation of extracts of the roots of Landolpbia owerience for antibacterial activity. Journal Ethnopharmcology, 78(2-3):119-27
  44. Trease, G.E and Evans, W.C. (1989). Pharmacognasy WB. Scandars Company Ltd. London. 14:269-300.
  45. Narayani, M., Johnson, M., Sivaraman, A and Janakiraman, N. (2012). Phytochemical and Antibacterial Studies on Jatropha curcas L. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 4(5):2639-2642.
  46. Parekh, J and Chands, S (2007). In vitro antibacterial activity of the crude methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. Flower (Lythraceae), Brazil Journal of Microbiology, 38:204-7.
  47. Alagbe, J.O., Adeoye, Adekemi and Oluwatobi, O.A. (2020). Proximate and mineral analysis of Delonix regia leaves and roots. International Journal on Integrated Education. 3(10): 144-149.
  48. Alagbe, J.O., Sharma, R., Eunice Abidemi Ojo, Shittu, M.D and Bello Kamoru Atanda (2020). Chemical evaluation of the proximate, minerals, vitamins and phytochemical analysis of Daniellia oliveri stem bark. International Journal of Biological, Physical and Chemical Studies, 2(1):16-22.

Regular Issue Subscription Original Research
Volume 01
Issue 01
Received January 8, 2023
Accepted January 17, 2023
Published January 31, 2023