A Global Impact of Pharmaceutical Pollution

Open Access

Year : 2022 | Volume : | Issue : 2 | Page : 1-7

    L Immanuel

  1. Blessy Jacob

  2. Visaga Perumal

  3. Vineeth Chandy

  1. Student, T. John College of Pharmacy, Gottigere, Bangalore, Karnataka, India


Pharmaceutical products play an important role in our daily life in which consumption medicine is essential in need of curing the disease. As the requirement of the pharmaceuticals is more important in human life the production of medicine is in more demanded in global level in our day-to-day life. The most important aspects are the other side in which the pollution of the pharmaceuticals is caused due to the manufacturing, emission, disposal and consumption of the drug materials. This pharmaceutical pollution creates a global impact which is a huge threat to the environment and the human life. Due to the drug pollution in the water environment many rivers around the world in many countries have been polluted in which the effluent, residue, disposed and undisposed drugs from the pharmaceutical industries, hospital wastes, medicine consumed have routed by the water to various rivers, lakes etc. The medicinal products also effect the drinking water and causes more adverse effects. The survey was taken from different articles in which the causes and prevention has briefly detailed and some treatment methods have mentioned in order reduce the pollution form pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: Pharmaceutical products, manufacturing, disposal, drug pollution, global impact

[This article belongs to Research & Reviews: A Journal of Toxicology(rrjot)]

How to cite this article: L Immanuel, Blessy Jacob, Visaga Perumal, Vineeth Chandy A Global Impact of Pharmaceutical Pollution rrjot 2022; 12:1-7
How to cite this URL: L Immanuel, Blessy Jacob, Visaga Perumal, Vineeth Chandy A Global Impact of Pharmaceutical Pollution rrjot 2022 {cited 2022 Aug 26};12:1-7. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/rrjot/article=2022/view=97413

Full Text PDF Download

Browse Figures


1. Doerr-MacEwen NA, Haight ME. Expert stakeholders’ views on the management of human pharmaceuticals in the environment. Environmental management. 2006 ;38(5):853–66.
2. Larsson DJ. Pollution from drug manufacturing: review and perspectives. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2014 Nov 19;369(1656):20130571.
3. Daughton CG. Pharmaceuticals as environmental pollutants: the ramifications for human exposure. International encyclopedia of public health. 2008 ; 5:66–102.
4. Dodgen LK, Kelly WR, Panno SV, et.el,. Characterizing pharmaceutical, personal care product, and hormone contamination in a karst aquifer of southwestern Illinois, USA, using water quality and stream flow parameters. Science of the total Environment. 2017 ; 578:281–9.
5. Kümmerer K. Pharmaceuticals in the environment. Annual review of environment and resources. 2010 ; 35:57–75.
6. Daniel workman,Drugs And Medicine Exports By Various Countries. https://www.worldstopexports.com/drugs-medicine-exports-country/ updated on 2021.
7. Wilkinson JL, Boxall AB, Kolpin DW,et.el. Pharmaceutical pollution of the world’s rivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2022 Feb 22;119(8): e2113947119.
8. Hernando MD, Mezcua M, Fernández-Alba AR, Barceló D. Environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluents, surface waters and sediments. Talanta. 2006; 69(2):334–42.
9. Mr. Shailendra Mudgal, Ms. Arianna De Toni, Ms. Sarah Lockwood,et.el, Study on the environmental risks of medicinal products. BIO Intelligence Service. 2013.
10. Snyder S, Lue-Hing C, Cotruvo J, Drewes JE, Eaton A, Pleus RC, Schlenk D. Pharmaceuticals in the water environment. National Association of Clean Water Environment (NACWA) and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies (AMWA). 2009;31.
11. Downs CA, Kramarsky-Winter E, Segal R,et.el Toxicopathological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, oxybenzone (benzophenone-3), on coral planulae and cultured primary cells and its environmental contamination in Hawaii and the US Virgin Islands. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2016 ;70(2):265–88.
12. Ankley GT, Brooks BW, Huggett DB, Sumpter AJ. Repeating history: pharmaceuticals in the environment. (2007):;41(24):8211–8217.
13. Fick J, Lindberg RH, Parkkonen J,et.el. Therapeutic levels of levonorgestrel detected in blood plasma of fish: results from screening rainbow trout exposed to treated sewage effluents. Environmental science & technology. 2010 ;44(7):2661–6.
14. Snyder SA, Westerhoff P, Yoon Y, Sedlak DL. Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors in water: implications for the water industry. Environmental engineering science. 2003 ;20(5):449–69.
15. Padhye LP, Yao H, Kung’u FT, Huang CH. Year-long evaluation on the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disrupting chemicals in an urban drinking water treatment plant. Water research. 2014;51:266–76.
16. Endocrine Disruptors,National institute of environmental health sciences (NIEHS). https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/endocrine/index.cfm,( last updated on 2020)
17. Martin JM, Saaristo M, Bertram MG, et.el, The psychoactive pollutant fluoxetine compromises antipredator behaviour in fish. Environmental Pollution. 2017 ;222:592–9.
18. Murray‐Smith RJ, Coombe VT, Grönlund MH,et.el, Managing emissions of active pharmaceutical ingredients from manufacturing facilities: an environmental quality standard approach. Integrated environmental assessment and management. 2012;8(2):320–30.
19. World Health Organization. Pharmaceuticals in drinking-water. (2012).
20. Boleda MR, Galceran MT, Ventura F. Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments. Environmental pollution. 2011 ;159(6):1584–91.
21. Adamczak K, Lyko S, Nafo I, et.el,Pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic system–a challenge for the future.Glasgow canadian university.2012
22. Götz K, Benzing C, Deffner J, Keil F, Birzle-Harder B, Strelau L, Reisenauer S. German Federal Environmental Agency Research Project 37 08 61 400.
23. Wang J, Wang S. Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from wastewater: a review. Journal of environmental management. 2016 ;182:620–40.
24. Mellah A, Fernandes SP, Rodríguez R, Otero J, Paz J, Cruces J, Medina DD, Djamila H, Espiña B, Salonen LM. Adsorption of pharmaceutical pollutants from water using covalent organic frameworks. Chemistry–A European Journal. 2018 ;24(42):10601–5.
25. Sharma A, Chaudhry SA. Adsorption of Pharmaceutical Pollutants Using Lignocellulosic Materials. InGreen Materials for Wastewater Treatment 2020 (pp. 277–289). Springer, Cham.

Regular Issue Open Access Article
Volume 12
Issue 2
Received June 20, 2022
Accepted July 22, 2022
Published August 26, 2022