Evaluation Of Anti Obesity Activity Of Citrus Sinensis & Citrus Limon By High Fat Diet Induced Model Using Danio Rerio

Year : 2024 | Volume :14 | Issue : 01 | Page : 24-31
By

Saswata Mukherjee

Souradeep Datta

Samrat Bose

  1. Postgraduate Student Guru Nanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology ,Panihati West Bengal India
  2. Postgraduate Student Guru Nanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology ,Panihati West Bengal India
  3. Assistant Professor Guru Nanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Panihati West Bengal India

Abstract

Obesity, defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health, is becoming one of the greatest challenges to global health in this millennium, with more than 300 million men and nearly 450 million women obese globally in 2018. Obesity turns into serious problem globally. Zebrafish model can be used extensively for drug screening due to its low maintenance cost, comparatively short period of testing, genetic similarity with human body. Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon contain different pharmacological properties due to its plenty of source of secondary metabolites. Different parts of Citrus sinensis & Citrus limon contain anti-oxidant activity and its contain different pharmacognostic characteristics such as flavonoids, hydroxyamide, steroids, alkanes and alkanes, fatty acids, coumarins, peptides, carbohydrates, carbamates and alkylamines, carotenoids, volatile compounds such as ketones, ester, terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols etc. Fresh and healthy Citrus sinensis & Citrus limon were procured from the locality of Hooghly district, West Bengal in the month of August. A large group of high fat diet induced adult zebra fishes were taken, weighed & divided into control, test (15, 30 and 50 mg/dl concentration), and standard groups. After 42 days, compared the total cholesterol level with control group of fishes (without treated test drug). Citrus sinensis & Citrus limon shows the anti-obesity activity on Danio rerio. Different concentration of test sample (15, 30 and 50 mg/dl) are showing the significant anti-obesity activity on zebra fish model where different standard obesity induced model (by using high fat diet induced) was used. This experimental protocol can be used to continue more comparative studies in future using different dosage form and more variety of citrus fruits, which can lead to more even bigger statistical answer to anti-obesity problems and its natural remedies. Also, this dietary protocol can used to in diabetic model of zebra fishes, to co-relate obesity with diabetes. To finish with, this animal model and experiments were just a very first small step towards a globally emerging problem of obesity and the mental health related to it, there is huge future scope for this type of research work.

Keywords: Anti-obesity, Citrus sinensis, Citrus limon, Danio rerio, Atorvastatin.

[This article belongs to Research & Reviews: A Journal of Pharmacology(rrjop)]

How to cite this article: Saswata Mukherjee, Souradeep Datta, Samrat Bose. Evaluation Of Anti Obesity Activity Of Citrus Sinensis & Citrus Limon By High Fat Diet Induced Model Using Danio Rerio. Research & Reviews: A Journal of Pharmacology. 2024; 14(01):24-31.
How to cite this URL: Saswata Mukherjee, Souradeep Datta, Samrat Bose. Evaluation Of Anti Obesity Activity Of Citrus Sinensis & Citrus Limon By High Fat Diet Induced Model Using Danio Rerio. Research & Reviews: A Journal of Pharmacology. 2024; 14(01):24-31. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/rrjop/article=2024/view=137785




References

1. Zang L, Maddison LA, Chen W; “Zebrafish as a Model for Obesity and Diabetes. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology”; 2018 Aug 20;6: p:91.

2. Faillaci F, Milosa F, Critelli RM, Turola E, Schepis F, Villa E. Obese zebrafish: A small fish for a major human health condition. Animal Models and Experimental Medicine. 2018;1(4):255 65.

3. Benchoula K, Khatib A, Jaffar A, Ahmed QU, Sulaiman WM, Abd Wahab R, El-Seedi HR. The promise of zebrafish as a model of metabolic syndrome. Experimental animals. 2019;68(4):407-16.

4. Zang L, Shimada Y, Kawajiri J, Tanaka T, Nishimura N. Effects of Yuzu (Citrus junos Siebold ex Tanaka) peel on the diet-induced obesity in a zebrafish model. journal of functional foods. 2014 Sep 1;10:499-510.

5. Montalbano G, Mania M, Guerrera MC, Laurà R, Abbate F, Levanti M, Maugeri A, Germanà A, Navarra M. Effects of a flavonoid-rich extract from Citrus sinensis juice on a diet-induced obese zebrafish. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019 Oct 15;20(20):5116.
6. Fang L, Liu C, Miller YI. Zebrafish models of dyslipidemia: relevance to atherosclerosis and angiogenesis. Translational Research. 2014;163(2):99–108

7. Hölttä-Vuori M, Salo VTV, Nyberg L, Brackmann C, Enejder A, Panula P, et al. Zebrafish: gaining popularity in lipid research. Biochemical Journal. 2010;429(2):235–42.

8. Oka T, Nishimura Y, Zang L, Hirano M, Shimada Y, Wang Z, Umemoto N, Kuroyanagi J, Nishimura N, Tanaka T. Diet-induced obesity in zebrafish shares common pathophysiological pathways with mammalian obesity. BMC physiology. 2010 Dec;10:1-3.

9. Nur A, Karina Y. Widodo E, Retty R. Amirah F. Effect of Sweet Purple Potato Extract (Ipomoea batatas L) on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) by Diet Induced Obesity. 2016;124(8):88-125

10. Schlegel A, Gut P. Metabolic insights from zebrafish genetics, physiology, and chemical biology. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 2015 Jun;72:2249-60.

11. Anderson JL, Carten JD, Farber SA. Zebrafish lipid metabolism: from mediating early patterning to the metabolism of dietary fat and cholesterol. Methods in cell biology. 2011 Jan 1;101:pp:111-41.
12. Kobashigawa JA, Moriguchi JD, Ro TK, Einhorn K, Cassem JD, Hamilton MA, Hage A, Kawata N, Laks H. Atorvastatin for refractory hypercholesterolemia in heart transplant patients. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 1998;31(2SA):157A-

13. Emim JA, Oliveira AB, Lapa AJ. Pharmacological evaluation of the anti‐inflammatory activity of a citrus bioflavonoid, hesperidin, and the isoflavonoids, duartin and claussequinone, in rats and mice. Journal of pharmacy and Pharmacology. 1994 Feb;46(2):118-22.

14. Viviana Negro, Bernardo Ruggeri, Giuseppe Mancini, Debora Fino. Recovery of D-limonene through moderate temperature extraction and pyrolytic products from orange peels. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 2017, 92 (6), 1186-1191. DOI: 10.1002/jctb.5107.

15. Powell DR: Obesity drugs and their targets: correlation of mouse knockout phenotypes with drug effects in vivo. Obes Rev. 2006, 7 (1): 89-108.

16. Lieschke GJ, Currie PD: Animal models of human disease: zebrafish swim into view. Nat Rev Genet. 2007, 8 (5):p:353-367.

17. Song Y, Golling G, Thacker TL, Cone RD: Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is conserved and regulated by metabolic state in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Endocrine. 2003, 22 (3): p:257-265.

18. Eames, S. C., Philipson, L. H., Prince, V. E., and Kinkel, M. D. (2010). Blood sugar measurement in zebrafish reveals dynamics of glucose homeostasis. Zebrafish 7, p;205–213.

19. Den Broeder, M. J., Kopylova, V. A., Kamminga, L. M., and Legler, J. (2015). Zebrafish as a model to study the role of peroxisome proliferating-activated receptors in adipogenesis and obesity. 2015:358029.

20. Jurczyk, A., Roy, N., Bajwa, R., Gut, P., Lipson, K., Yang, C., et al. (2011). Dynamic glucoregulation and mammalian-like responses to metabolic and developmental disruption in zebrafish. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 170,(2) p:334–345.

21. Landgraf, K., Schuster, S., Meusel, A., Garten, A., Riemer, T., Schleinitz, D., et al. (2017). Short-term overfeeding of zebrafish with normal or high-fat diet as a model for the development of metabolically healthy versus unhealthy obesity. 8 (5): p:458-367.

22. MacRae, C. A., and Peterson, R. T. (2015). Zebrafish as tools for drug discovery. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 14, p:721–731.

23. Loos, R. J. (2018). The genetics of adiposity. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 50, p:86–95.

24. Meguro, S., and Hasumura, T. (2018). Fish oil suppresses body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Zebrafish 15,(1),p: 27–32.

25. Peng, X., Shang, G., Wang, W., Chen, X., Lou, Q., Zhai, G., et al. (2017). Fatty acid oxidation in zebrafish adipose tissue is promoted by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3. Cell Rep. 19, p:1444–1455.

26. Adler, K. C., Amsterdam, A., Soroka, C., Boyer, J., and Hopkins, N. (2005). A genetic screen in zebrafish identifies the mutants vps18, nf2 and foie gras as models of liver disease. Development 132,p:3561–3572.

27. Del Rı́o JA, Fuster MD, Gómez P, Porras I, Garcıa-Lidón A, Ortuño A. Citrus limon: A source of flavonoids of pharmaceutical interest. Food chemistry. 2004 Feb 1;84(3):457-61.

28. Arcas, M. C., Botı´a, J. M., Ortun˜o, A., & Del Rı´o, J. A. UV irradiation alters the levels of flavonoids envolved in the defence mechanism of Citrus aurantium fruits against Penicillium digitatum. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 2014, 106, 617–622.

29. McRae MP. Dietary Fiber Is Beneficial for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: An Umbrella Review of Meta-analyses. J Chiropr Med. 2017 Dec;16(4):289-299. doi: 10.1016/j.jcm.2017.05.005.

30. Simons T, McNeil C, Pham VD, Wang S, Wang Y, Slupsky C, Guinard JX. Chemical and sensory analysis of commercial Navel oranges in California. NPJ Sci Food. 2019 Oct 30;3:22. doi: 10.1038/s41538-019-0055-7.

31. S. Ranganna, V. S. Govindarajan, K. V. R. Ramana, J. F. Kefford. Citrus fruits — Varieties, chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry. C R C Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 1983, 18 (4), 313-386. DOI: 10.1080/10408398309527366.

32. Nguyen M, Yang E, Neelkantan N, Mikhaylova A, Arnold R, Poudel MK, Stewart AM, Kalueff AV. Developing ‘integrative’ zebrafish models of behavioral and metabolic disorders. Behav Brain Res. 2013 Nov 1;256:172-87. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2013.08.012.

33. Montalbano G, Mania M, Guerrera MC, Laurà R, Abbate F, Levanti M, et al. Effects of a Flavonoid-Rich Extract from Citrus sinensis Juice on a Diet-Induced Obese Zebrafish. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019;20(20):5116.

34. Fang L, Harkewicz R, Hartvigsen K, Wiesner P, Choi S-H, Almazan F, et al. Oxidized Cholesteryl Esters and Phospholipids in Zebrafish Larvae Fed a High Cholesterol Diet. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2010;285(42):32343–51.

35. Baek JS, Fang L, Li AC, Miller YI. Ezetimibe and simvastatin reduce cholesterol levels in zebrafish larvae fed a high-cholesterol diet. Cholesterol. 2012;2012:564705. doi: 10.1155/2012/564705.

36. Zang, Liqing, Yasuhito Shimada, Yuhei Nishimura, Toshio Tanaka, and Norihiro Nishimura. “A Novel, Reliable Method for Repeated Blood Collection from Aquarium Fish.” Zebrafish 10, no. 3 (2013): 425–32. https://doi.org/10.1089/zeb.2012.0862

37. OECD guidelines, Fish acute toxicity testing, June, 2019. https://www.oecd.org/general/searchresults/?q=Fish%20acute%20toxicity%20testing&cx=012432601748511391518:xzeadub0b0a&cof=FORID:11&ie=UTF-8
38. Ni H, Peng L, Gao X, Ji H, Ma J, Li Y et al; “Effects of Maduramicin on Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio): Acute toxicity, tissue damage and oxidative stress. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety”; 2019; 168:249-259.
39. Mukherjee, S., & Bose, S. (2020). Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of amorphophallus paeoniifolius by streptozotocin and alloxan-induced model using danio rerio. Research & Reviews A Journal of Pharmacognosy. 2020; 7(3): 18–29p. https://doi.org/10.37591/rrjopc.v7i3.857
40. Pedroso GL, Hammes TO, Escobar TD, Fracasso LB, Forgiarini LF, da Silveira TR. Blood collection for biochemical analysis in adult zebrafish. J Vis Exp. 2012 May 26;(63):e3865. doi: 10.3791/3865.


Regular Issue Subscription Original Research
Volume 14
Issue 01
Received March 11, 2024
Accepted March 21, 2024
Published April 2, 2024