Algal Biomass Production and its Utilization

Year : 2024 | Volume :13 | Issue : 01 | Page : 15-22

Pragya Yadav

A.K Sarma

  1. Research Scholar Department of Biotechnology, I. K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar Punjab India
  2. Scientist E Department of Biotechnology, Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio-Energy Kapurthala Punjab India


Algal biomass production is gaining traction as a promising source of bioenergy due to its rapid growth rate and ability to utilize carbon dioxide emissions. Algae, being photosynthetic organisms, require sunlight, CO2, and optimal growth conditions for biomass increase. Temperature, light intensity, pH, aeration, mixing, and salinity play crucial roles in achieving optimum growth. Algae cultivation can occur in various water resources without competing with conventional agriculture. Microalgae, with their ability to double biomass in less than a day, offer advantages over terrestrial crops, including year-round harvesting and quick system repairs in case of failures.
Two primary cultivation systems, open raceway ponds and photobioreactors (PBRs), offer distinct advantages. Open raceway ponds are cost-effective but susceptible to environmental fluctuations and uneven light distribution. In contrast, PBRs provide a controlled environment, optimizing growth conditions such as CO2 supply, temperature, light exposure, and mixing. While closed photobioreactor systems require greater upfront investment, they offer the potential for increased productivity and improved resource efficiency. The abstract underscores the potential of algae as a renewable energy source and highlights the importance of optimizing growth conditions and cultivation systems for maximizing biomass production. As the world seeks sustainable alternatives to conventional energy sources, algae present a compelling solution, offering rapid growth rates, carbon sequestration benefits, and versatility in cultivation methods. Continued research and development in algae cultivation techniques hold promise for scalable, eco-friendly bioenergy production Algae are chlorophyll bearing photosynthetic organisms capable of fixing carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Currently, interest in the field of Algae as a source of Bioenergy has heightened as it is a rich source of various compounds and chemicals that act as a source of energy.

Keywords: Algal biomass, Flocculation, Microalgae biomass, Filtration, Centrifugation

[This article belongs to Research & Reviews : Journal of Botany(rrjob)]

How to cite this article: Pragya Yadav, A.K Sarma. Algal Biomass Production and its Utilization. Research & Reviews : Journal of Botany. 2024; 13(01):15-22.
How to cite this URL: Pragya Yadav, A.K Sarma. Algal Biomass Production and its Utilization. Research & Reviews : Journal of Botany. 2024; 13(01):15-22. Available from:

Browse Figures


  1. Gong Y, Jiang M. Biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock: from strains to biodiesel. Biotechnology letters. 2011 Jul;33:1269-84.
  2. Harun R, Danquah MK, Forde GM. Microalgal biomass as a fermentation feedstock for bioethanol production. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology. 2010 Feb;85(2):199-203.
  3. Johnson MB, Wen Z. Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. 2010 Jan;85:525-34.
  4. Kuda, T., Tsunekawa, M, Goto, H, and Araki, Y. 2005. Antioxidant properties of four edible algae harvested in the Noto Peninsula, Japan.Journal of Food Composition andAnalysis18:625-633.
  5. Koutinas, A.A., Vlysidis, A., Pleissner, Kopsahelis, N., Garcia, I.L., Kookos, I.K., Papanikolaou, S., Kwan, T.H. and Lin, C.S.K. 2014. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers Chem. Soc. Rev., 43, 2587-2627
  6.  Lee YK. Microalgal mass culture systems and methods: their limitation and potential. Journal of applied phycology. 2001 Aug;13:307-15
  7. Lowrey JB. Seawater/wastewater production of microalgae-based biofuels in closed loop tubular photobioreactors(Doctoral dissertation, California Polytechnic State University).
  8.  8Miao X, Wu Q. Biodiesel production from heterotrophic microalgal oil. Bioresource technology. 2006 Apr 1;97(6):841-6.
  9. Mohan, D., Jr. C. U. Pittman and P. H. Steele, 2006.“Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil: A critical review,” Energy Fuels, 20, no. 3, pp. 848–889.
  10. Molina Grima, E., Belarbi, E. H., AcienFernández, F., Robles Medina, A., and Chisti, Y.(2003). Recovery of microalgal biomass and metabolites: process options and economics. Biotechnology Advances, 2001, (20) 491-515.
  11. Osada, M., Sato, T., Watanabe,M., Adschiri, T. and Arai, K. 2004. Low temperature catalytic gasification of lignin and cellulose with a ruthenium catalyst in supercritical water.Energy and Fuels.18: 327-333.
  12. Phoochinda, W. and White, D.A. 2003.Removal of algae using froth flotation.Environmental Technology.24(1), 87.
  13. Priyadarshani I. and Rath, B. 2012.Commercial and industrial applications of micro algae – A review. Algal Biomass Utln.2012, 3 (4): 89–100:625-633.
  14. Pulz, O and Gross W. Valuable products from biotechnology of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2004; 65: 625
  15. Pyle D., Denver J. and Wen Z. 2008. Producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) rich algae from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol: Effects of impurities on DHA production and algal biomass composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (11) 3933-3939
  16. Rania, M.A. and Hala, M.T. 2008. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Cynobacteria and green Microalgae evaluation of medium components by Plackett-Burman design for antimicrobial activity of Spirulinaplatensis. Global Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 3(1): 22-31.
  17. Ras M, Lardon L, Bruno S, et al. 2011. Experimental study on a coupled process of production and anaerobic digestion of Chlorellavulgaris. Bioresource Technology, 102, 200–206
  18. Richmond, A. 2004. Biological principles of mass In: Richmond A, ed. Microalgalculture. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd, 125-177.
  19. Rodgers, G.A., Bergman, B., Henriksson, U., and Udris, M. Utilization of Blue Green Algae as Bio-fertilizers, Plant Soil, 1979, 52, 99–107
  20. Sacan, M. T. and I. A. Balcioglu. 2006. A case study on algal response to raw and treated effluents from an aluminum plating plant and a pharmaceutical plant. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 64(2), 234-243.
  21. Sheehan, J., Dunahay, T., Benemann, J. R., and Roessler, P. 1998. A look back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s aquatic species program -Biodiesel from algae.
  22. Singh A., Nigam P.S., and Murphy J.D. 2011. Mechanism and challenges in commercialization of algal biofuels. Bioresource Technology. 102: 26–34.
  23. Spolaore P. 2006. Commercial applications of microalgae, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 101(2), 87-96
  24. Stolz, P. and Obermayer, B. 2005. Manufacturing microalgae for skin care. Cosmetics Toiletries, 120: 99–106
  25. Sydney, E.B. Sturm, W. de Carvalho, J.C. Thomaz-Soccol, Larroche, C. Pandey, A. and Soccol, C.R. 2010 Potential carbon dioxide fixation by industrially important Bioresource Technology. 101: 5892-5896.
  26. Tredici M R and Materassi R. 1992. From open ponds to vertical alveolar panels: the Italian experience in the development of reactors for the mass cultivation of phototrophic Journal of Applied Phycology, 4: 221
  27. Um, B.H. and Kim, Y.S. 2009. Review: A chance for Korea to advance algal-biodiesel technology. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 15:1-7.
  28. Wang, T. 2010. Functional and Nutraceutical Ingredients from Marine Macroalgae.Chapter.Handbook of seafood quality, safety and health applications
  29. Xu, H., X. and Miao, Q. Wu. 2006. High quality biodiesel production from a microalga chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters. Journal of Biotechnology. 126, 499- 507
  30. Yang Y.F., Feng C.P., Inamori Y. and Maekawa T. 2004. Analysis of energy conversion characteristics
    • in liquefaction of algae. Conserv.Recycl.,43, 21–33.

Regular Issue Subscription Review Article
Volume 13
Issue 01
Received March 19, 2024
Accepted April 18, 2024
Published May 6, 2024