Measurement of urbanization in India: an empirical study through degree and rate of urbanization

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    Prof. Ram Krishna Mandal

  1. Professor, Department of Economics, Cooch Behar Panchanan Barma University,, West Bengal, India


Urbanization is a progressive concentration of people in urban areas. Quantifying urbanisation is a very challenging task. There are numerous demographic dimensions that can be used to quantify the urbanisation process, among which the degree of Urbanization and Rate of Urbanization are applied. Goal: Using Indian Census data from 1901 to 2011, this paper attempts to quantify the extent and pace of urbanisation in India. Methods: The study is descriptive in nature and is based on secondary sources, including books, articles, websites, online journals, and a variety of census reports. Data taken from various census repots are arranged in such a way so that the necessary tools like the formulae of degree of urbanization and rate of urbanisation can be applied. Results and Discussions: India’s urbanization has been rapidly increasing over the past 20 years. It is clear that India is not one of the world’s most urbanised nations. About 20 years ago, the actual process of urbanization began in India, and since then, it has gained enough momentum to absorb a sizable portion of the rural population. Rate of urbanization and degree of urbanization in India are measured on the basis of data of urban population from 1901 CE to 2011 CE. Findings: The Degree of Urbanization and Rate of Urbanization, both indicate a moderate rate of urbanization. In conclusion, stabilising the population is essential to promoting sustainable development. The pressure on urbanisation is growing as the global population grows in a geometric manner. Conclusion: Encouraging sustainable development necessitates population stabilization. As the India’s population rises geometrically, there is increasing strain on urbanization arable land, water, energy, and biological resources to produce adequate food while maintaining the integrity of our ecosystem. India’s population policy must be founded on practical steps that not only address our population issue but also enable the impoverished to make real and significant life improvements.

Keywords: Progressive Concentration, Demographic Dimensions, Population, Sustainable Development, Population, Sustainable Development.

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Open Access Case Study
Received December 14, 2023
Accepted December 28, 2023