Aluminum based types of hydrophobic coatings for Engineering Materials: A Review

Open Access

Year : 2024 | Volume : | : | Page : –

Gaurav Verma

Kamal Sharma

Aayush Gupta

  1. Research Scholar Department of Mechanical Engineering, GLA University, Mathura Uttar Pradesh India
  2. Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, GLA University, Mathura Uttar Pradesh India
  3. Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, GLA University, Mathura Uttar Pradesh India


Today’s coating applications allow for the employment of a wide range of techniques and substances to safeguard products and structures from chemical and chemical harm. Coatings are now widely utilized in manufacturing across the globe to boost productivity and cut costs, both of which are crucial for maintaining the industry’s profitability. Materials with coatings are stronger than those without coatings. Strong and hard metals, ceramics, bioglass, polymers, and plastic materials are just a few of the alternatives available to designers for simple means of permanent protection. Coating techniques include sol-gel, thermal spray, dip coating, and spray coating. Only a few of the numerous processes that have been recorded and investigated include surface modification, thermal spray, sol-gel, and deposition by vapor, along with physical/chemical vapour deposition and electrode position techniques. The focus of the research is on different methods for creating aluminum-based hydrophobic coatings, as well as different aluminium oxide technical features, such as contact angle and optical properties, which are crucial for hydrophobic behaviour.In this review paper emphasis is being done to show the utility of aluminum oxide as nanocoating material for enhancement of hydrophobic property .Also various coating techniques is being discussed and compared showing different result as per methology .Alumium based nanomaterial properties is also being compared with other nano materials .Contact angle of diffrernt nano materials is also being compared along with aluminum oxide. In support of various hydrophobic property various properties like contact angle,Raman spectroscopy, X ray properties, hardness, and wet ability is being discussed. After the review role of aluminum oxide is found versatile and important in enhancing hydrophobic properties of materials and in real life application. Some modification in properties of aluminum oxide may also lead to conversion from hydrophobic (contact angle >900) to super hydrophobic (contact angle >1500). Right now, the best method for preventing aluminium alloy corrosion is chromate, or hexavalent chromium. Anodizing is frequently used as the preferred finishing technique for aluminium components. Long-term strength, durability, and corrosion resistance can be maintained in aluminium using this coating. Because of its superior weather resistance, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) resin is a manufactured coating that is frequently utilised for architectural applications. Wall claddings and aluminium roof sheets are among the most frequently coated surfaces using PVDF.As compared with hydrophobic property with respect to contact angle various result is seen as follows Lead(II) oxide114.60 , Iindium(III) oxide1150 , Zinc oxide153°, Titanium dioxide 129° , Chromium(III) oxide 1510, Alumina powder 144.500 and Teflon 128.400 etc

Keywords: Aluminum oxide, coating technique, coating materials, coating properties hydrophobic effect.

How to cite this article: Gaurav Verma, Kamal Sharma, Aayush Gupta. Aluminum based types of hydrophobic coatings for Engineering Materials: A Review. Journal of Polymer and Composites. 2024; ():-.
How to cite this URL: Gaurav Verma, Kamal Sharma, Aayush Gupta. Aluminum based types of hydrophobic coatings for Engineering Materials: A Review. Journal of Polymer and Composites. 2024; ():-. Available from:

Full Text PDF Download


[1]      D. K. Sharma, V. Baghel, R. Kumar, D. K. Avasthi, and B. S. Sikarwar, Recent Developments in Fabrication of Super-Hydrophobic Surfaces : A Review. Springer Singapore, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-6412-9.

[2]      Q. Wen and Z. Guo, “Recent Advances in the Fabrications of Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” 2016, doi: 10.1246/cl.160621.

[3]      M. Krasowska, J. Zawala, and K. Malysa, “Air at hydrophobic surfaces and kinetics of three phase contact formation,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., vol. 147–148, pp. 155–169, 2009, doi:

[4]      J. Sedó, J. Saiz-Poseu, F. Busqué, and D. Ruiz-Molina, “Catechol-Based Biomimetic Functional Materials,” Adv. Mater., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 653–701, Feb. 2013, doi:

[5]      C. Protection, “Robust Super-Hydrophobic Coating Prepared by Electrochemical Surface Engineering for,” pp. 1–28.

[6]      A. Hooda, M. S. Goyat, J. K. Pandey, A. Kumar, and R. Gupta, “A review on fundamentals, constraints and fabrication techniques of superhydrophobic coatings,” Prog. Org. Coatings, vol. 142, no. January, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2020.105557.

[7]      J. Song and O. J. Rojas, “Approaching super-hydrophobicity from cellulosic materials : A Review,” 2013.

[8]      V. K. Rastogi, P. Samyn, and N. Resources, “Bio-Based Coatings for Paper Applications,” pp. 887–930, 2015, doi: 10.3390/coatings5040887.

[9]      P. Samyn, “Wetting and hydrophobic modification of cellulose surfaces for paper applications,” 2013, doi: 10.1007/s10853-013-7519-y.

[10]    P. Nguyen-Tri et al., “Recent progress in the preparation, properties and applications of superhydrophobic nano-based coatings and surfaces: A review,” Prog. Org. Coatings, vol. 132, pp. 235–256, 2019, doi:

[11]    D. Zhang, L. Wang, H. Qian, and X. Li, “Superhydrophobic surfaces for corrosion protection: a review of recent progresses and future directions,” J. Coatings Technol. Res., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 11–29, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s11998-015-9744-6.

[12]    S. K. Sethi and G. Manik, “Recent Progress in Super Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Self-Cleaning Surfaces for Various Industrial Applications: A Review,” Polym. – Plast. Technol. Eng., vol. 57, no. 18, pp. 1932–1952, 2018, doi: 10.1080/03602559.2018.1447128.

[13]    V. K. Mishra, R. Saini, and N. Kumar, “A review on superhydrophobic materials and coating techniques,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 1168, no. 1, p. 012026, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1757-899x/1168/1/012026.

[14]    F. Wang, S. Arai, and M. Endo, “Electrochemical preparation and characterization of nickel/ultra-dispersed PTFE composite films from aqueous solution,” Mater. Trans., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1311–1316, 2004, doi: 10.2320/matertrans.45.1311.

[15]    K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic−Superhydrophilic Micropatterning on Flowerlike Alumina Coating Film by the Sol−Gel Method,” Chem. Mater., vol. 12, Feb. 2000, doi: 10.1021/cm990643h.

[16]    rv Lakshmi, B. Thangavel, and B. Basu, “Superhydrophobic sol–gel nanocomposite coatings with enhanced hardness,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 257, pp. 10421– 10426, Oct. 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.06.122.

[17]    M. Pantoja, F. Velasco, J. Abenojar, and M. A. Martinez, “Development of superhydrophobic coatings on AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with different surface pretreatments,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 671, pp. 22–30, 2019, doi:

[18]    M. Ma, Y. Mao, M. Gupta, K. K. Gleason, and G. C. Rutledge, “Superhydrophobic Fabrics Produced by Electrospinning and Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Macromolecules, vol. 38, no. 23, pp. 9742–9748, Nov. 2005, doi: 10.1021/ma0511189.

[19]    Y. Z. Zhang, J. Venugopal, Z.-M. Huang, C. T. Lim, and S. Ramakrishna, “Characterization of the Surface Biocompatibility of the Electrospun PCL-Collagen Nanofibers Using Fibroblasts,” Biomacromolecules, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 2583–2589, Sep. 2005, doi: 10.1021/bm050314k.

[20]    R. Jafari, “Applications of Plasma Technology in Development of Superhydrophobic Surfaces : A Review,” no. 418, 1963.

[21]    B. Qian and Z. Shen, “Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Dislocation-Selective Chemical Etching on Aluminum, Copper, and Zinc Substrates,” Langmuir, vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 9007–9009, Sep. 2005, doi: 10.1021/la051308c.

[22]    R. Li et al., “Fabrication and Characterization of Superhydrophobic Al-Based Surface Used for  Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers.,” Mater. (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 15, no. 9, Apr. 2022, doi: 10.3390/ma15093060.

[23]    S. S. Latthe, A. B. Gurav, C. S. Maruti, and R. S. Vhatkar, “Recent Progress in Preparation of Superhydrophobic Surfaces : A Review,” vol. 2012, no. April, pp. 76–94, 2012.

[24]    B. S. Yilbas, O. Keles, and A. Y. Toprakli, “Surface Engineering towards Self-Cleaning Applications: Laser Textured Silicon Surface,” Procedia Eng., vol. 184, pp. 716–724, 2017, doi:

[25]    J. T. Han, X. Xu, and K. Cho, “Diverse access to artificial superhydrophobic surfaces using block copolymers.,” Langmuir, vol. 21, no. 15, pp. 6662–6665, Jul. 2005, doi: 10.1021/la051042+.

[26]    L. Zhu, Y. Xiu, J. Xu, P. A. Tamirisa, D. W. Hess, and C.-P. Wong, “Superhydrophobicity on two-tier rough surfaces fabricated by controlled growth of  aligned carbon nanotube arrays coated with fluorocarbon.,” Langmuir, vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 11208–11212, Nov. 2005, doi: 10.1021/la051410+.

[27]    N. Zhao, L. Weng, X. Zhang, Q. Xie, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “A lotus-leaf-like superhydrophobic surface prepared by solvent-induced  crystallization.,” Chemphyschem, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 824–827, Apr. 2006, doi: 10.1002/cphc.200500698.

[28]    Z. Guo, J. Fang, L. Wang, and W. Liu, “Fabrication of superhydrophobic copper by wet chemical reaction,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, pp. 7190–7194, Jun. 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2007.02.100.

[29]    X. Wu, L. Zheng, and D. Wu, “Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces from microstructured ZnO-based surfaces  via a wet-chemical route.,” Langmuir, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 2665–2667, Mar. 2005, doi: 10.1021/la050275y.

[30]    H. Jeong and J. Kim, “Electrodeposition of nanoflake Pd structures: structure-dependent wettability and  SERS activity.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 7, no. 13, pp. 7129–7135, Apr. 2015, doi: 10.1021/acsami.5b02113.

[31]    G. Barati Darband, M. Aliofkhazraei, S. Khorsand, S. Sokhanvar, and A. Kaboli, “Science and Engineering of Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Review of Corrosion Resistance, Chemical and Mechanical Stability,” Arab. J. Chem., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1763–1802, 2020, doi:

[32]    H. S. Hwang and S. Lee, “Fabrication of raspberry-like superhydrophobic hollow silica particles,” Mater. Lett. – MATER LETT, vol. 64, pp. 2159–2162, Oct. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2010.07.031.

[33]    T. Yang, H. Tian, and Y. Chen, “Preparation of superhydrophobic silica films with honeycomb-like structure by emulsion method,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 243–246, 2009, doi: 10.1007/s10971-008-1855-4.

[34]    S. Kim and M. Sitti, “Biologically inspired polymer microfibers with spatulate tips as repeatable fibrillar adhesives,” pp. 1–3, 2006, doi: 10.1063/1.2424442.

[35]    A. Gurav, S. Latthe, C. Kappenstein, S. Mukherjee, A. Rao, and R. Vhatkar, “Porous water repellent silica coatings on glass by sol-gel method,” J. Porous Mater., vol. 18, pp. 361–367, Jun. 2011, doi: 10.1007/s10934-010-9386-0.

[36]    V. V Ganbavle, U. K. H. Bangi, S. S. Latthe, S. A. Mahadik, and A. V. Rao, “Self-cleaning silica coatings on glass by single step sol–gel route,” Surf. Coatings Technol., vol. 205, no. 23, pp. 5338–5344, 2011, doi:

[37]    X. Zhang, Y. Guo, P. Zhang, Z. Wu, and Z. Zhang, “Superhydrophobic CuO@Cu 2S nanoplate vertical arrays on copper surfaces,” Mater. Lett. – MATER LETT, vol. 64, pp. 1200–1203, May 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2010.02.050.

[38]    K. K. S. Lau et al., “Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Forests,” 2003.

[39]    L. Huang, S. P. Lau, H. Y. Yang, E. S. P. Leong, S. F. Yu, and S. Prawer, “Stable superhydrophobic surface via carbon nanotubes coated with a ZnO thin film.,” J. Phys. Chem. B, vol. 109, no. 16, pp. 7746–7748, Apr. 2005, doi: 10.1021/jp046549s.

[40]    M. Gupta, V. Kapur, N. Pinkerton, and K. Gleason, “Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) of Conformal Polymeric Nanocoatings for the Surface Modification of High-Aspect-Ratio Pores,” Chem. Mater., vol. 20, p. 1646, Feb. 2008, doi: 10.1021/cm702810j.

[41]    H. Liu, S. Szunerits, W. Xu, and R. Boukherroub, “Preparation of superhydrophobic coatings on zinc as effective corrosion barriers.,” ACS applied materials & interfaces, vol. 1, no. 6. United States, pp. 1150–1153, Jun. 2009. doi: 10.1021/am900100q.

[42]    P. Wang, D. Zhang, R. Qiu, and B. Hou, “Super-hydrophobic film prepared on zinc as corrosion barrier,” Corros. Sci. – CORROS SCI, vol. 53, pp. 2080–2086, Jun. 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.corsci.2011.02.025.

[43]    K. Teshima, H. Sugimura, Y. Inoue, O. Takai, and A. Takano, “Ultra-Water-Repellent Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Substrates,” Langmuir, vol. 19, no. 25, pp. 10624–10627, Dec. 2003, doi: 10.1021/la034265d.

[44]    J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent Superhydrophobic Films Based on Silica Nanoparticles,” Langmuir, vol. 23, no. 13, pp. 7293–7298, Jun. 2007, doi: 10.1021/la070159q.

[45]    T. Kako et al., “Adhesion and sliding of wet snow on a super-hydrophobic surface with hydrophilic channels,” J. Mater. Sci., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 547–555, 2004, doi: 10.1023/B:JMSC.0000011510.92644.3f.

[46]    S. Nagarajan et al., “Nanocomposite Coatings on Biomedical Grade Stainless Steel for Improved Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 5134–5141, Oct. 2012, doi: 10.1021/am301559r.

[47]    X.-T. Luo and C.-J. Li, “Large sized cubic BN reinforced nanocomposite with improved abrasive wear resistance deposited by cold spray,” Mater. Des., vol. 83, pp. 249–256, Oct. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2015.06.009.

[48]    X. Hou, K.-L. Choy, N. Brun, and V. Serín, “Nanocomposite Coatings Codeposited with Nanoparticles Using Aerosol-Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition,” J. Nanomater., vol. 2013, p. 219039, 2013, doi: 10.1155/2013/219039.

[49]    A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposites formed by ion implantation: Recent developments and future opportunities,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. with Mater. Atoms, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 7–16, 2001, doi:

[50]    M. Ramazani, F. Ashrafizadeh, and R. Mozaffarinia, “Optimization of Composition in Ni(Al)-Cr2O3 Based Adaptive Nanocomposite Coatings,” J. Therm. Spray Technol., vol. 23, pp. 962–974, Aug. 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11666-014-0118-x.

[51]    R. H. Fernando, “Nanocomposite and Nanostructured Coatings : Recent Advancements,” pp. 2–21, 2009.

[52]    J. Liu et al., “Super-Hydrophobic/Icephobic Coatings Based on Silica Nanoparticles Modified by Self-Assembled Monolayers,” Nanomaterials, vol. 6, no. 12, 2016, doi: 10.3390/nano6120232.

[53]    Z. Zhang et al., “One-step fabrication of robust superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces with self-cleaning and oil/water separation function,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, no. 1, p. 3869, 2018, doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22241-9.

[54]    Y. Y. Liu et al., “Synthesis and tribological behavior of electroless Ni–P–WC nanocomposite coatings,” Surf. Coatings Technol., vol. 201, no. 16, pp. 7246–7251, 2007, doi:

[55]    brahim nomeir, L. Sara, S. Boukheir, and S. Naamane, “Recent progress on transparent and self-cleaning surfaces by superhydrophobic coatings deposition to optimize the cleaning process of solar panels,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, May 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2023.112347.

[56]    P. Zhang and F. Y. Lv, “A review of the recent advances in superhydrophobic surfaces and the emerging energy-related applications,” Energy, vol. 82, pp. 1068–1087, 2015, doi:

[57]    Z. Yoshimitsu, A. Nakajima, T. Watanabe, and K. Hashimoto, “Effects of Surface Structure on the Hydrophobicity and Sliding Behavior of Water Droplets,” Langmuir, vol. 18, Jun. 2002, doi: 10.1021/la020088p.

[58]    Z. Wang, L. Shen, M. Qiu, W. Jiang, Y. Chen, and J. Zhao, “Study on the properties of superhydrophobic coating prepared by scanning electrodeposition on SLM substrate,” Mater. Res. Express, vol. 6, no. 10, p. 106409, Aug. 2019, doi: 10.1088/2053-1591/ab3682.

[59]    H. M. Ali, M. A. Qasim, S. Malik, and G. Murtaza, “Techniques for the Fabrication of Super-Hydrophobic Surfaces and Their Heat Transfer Applications,” in Heat Transfer, K. Volkov, Ed. Rijeka: IntechOpen, 2018. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.72820.

[60]    X.-M. Li, D. Reinhoudt, and M. Crego-Calama, “What do we need for a superhydrophobic surface? A review on the recent progress in the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces,” Chem. Soc. Rev., vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1350–1368, 2007, doi: 10.1039/B602486F.

[61]    V. K. Mishra, R. Saini, and N. Kumar, “A review on superhydrophobic materials and coating techniques,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 1168, no. 1, p. 12026, Jul. 2021, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/1168/1/012026.

[62]    C. Cionti, T. Taroni, and D. Meroni, “Bouncing Droplets: A Hands-On Activity To Demonstrate the Properties and Applications of Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings,” J. Chem. Educ., vol. 96, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00406.

[63]    J.-Y. Hao, W. Yingyong, X. Tong, G.-Q. Jin, and X. Guo, “Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production Over Modified SiC Nanowires Under Visible Light Irradiation,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 37, pp. 15038–15044, Oct. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2012.08.021.

[64]    K. Manabe, S. Nishizawa, K.-H. Kyung, and S. Shiratori, “Optical phenomena and antifrosting property on biomimetics slippery fluid-infused  antireflective films via layer-by-layer comparison with superhydrophobic and antireflective films.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 6, no. 16, pp. 13985–13993, Aug. 2014, doi: 10.1021/am503352x.

[65]    N. Saleema, D. K. Sarkar, R. W. Paynter, and X.-G. Chen, “Superhydrophobic aluminum alloy surfaces by a novel one-step process.,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 2500–2502, Sep. 2010, doi: 10.1021/am100563u.

[66]    L. Feng, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Superhydrophobic aluminum alloy surface: Fabrication, structure, and corrosion resistance,” Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp., vol. 441, pp. 319–325, 2014, doi:

[67]    C. Yung et al., “Plasma modification of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: Superhydrophobic surfaces with ultra-low reflectance,” Carbon N. Y., vol. 127, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.carbon.2017.10.093.

[68]    E. Simsek, K. Acatay, and Y. Z. Menceloglu, “Dual scale roughness driven perfectly hydrophobic surfaces prepared by  electrospraying a polymer in good solvent-poor solvent systems.,” Langmuir, vol. 28, no. 40, pp. 14192–14201, Oct. 2012, doi: 10.1021/la302548z.

[69]    M. Demirtas, C. Odaci, N. Perkgoz, C. Sevik, and F. Ay, “Low Loss Atomic Layer Deposited Al2O3 Waveguides for Applications in On-chip Optical Amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. PP, p. 1, Apr. 2018, doi: 10.1109/JSTQE.2018.2825880.

[70]    M. Aguilar-Gama et al., “Structure and refractive index of thin alumina films grown by atomic layer deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., vol. 26, Jun. 2014, doi: 10.1007/s10854-014-2111-z.

[71]    C.-C. Cheng et al., “Characteristics of Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] High-k Dielectric Films Grown on Ge Substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 155, no. 10, p. G203, 2008, doi: 10.1149/1.2965495.

[72]    “TWJ.May.2018.Tech.Solder.Al.pdf.”

[73]    N. M. Trindade, M. G. Magalhães, M. C. S. Nunes, E. M. Yoshimura, and L. G. Jacobsohn, “Thermoluminescence of UV-irradiated α-Al2O3:C,Mg,” J. Lumin., vol. 223, p. 117195, 2020, doi:

[74]    S. C. Reiff and J. A. Laverne, “Version of Record:,” pp. 1–21, 2016.

[75]    R. H. French, H. Müllejans, and D. J. Jones, “Optical properties of aluminum oxide: Determined from vacuum ultraviolet and electron energy-loss spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 2549–2557, 1998, doi: 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1998.tb02660.x.

[76]    D. Silva Calheiro, A. Luiza Fraga da Silveira, H. Cristina de Matos Garcia, Â. Moreira Marques dos Santos, and L. Claudio Meira-Belo, “ISSSD 2020 O NLI NE Study of emission and absorption spectra in α-Al 2 O 3 radiation detectors,” pp. 86–96, 2020.

[77]    M. Z. Hussain, U. Khan, R. Jangid, and S. Khan, “Hardness and wear analysis of Cu/Al2O3 composite for application in EDM electrode,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 310, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/310/1/012044.

[78]    J. S. Thornton, D. L. Yenawine, and A. D. Thomas, “Flexural Properties of Aluminum- Aluminum Oxide Sandwich Composites,” J. Compos. Mater., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 182–185, Jan. 1969, doi: 10.1177/002199836900300115.

Ahead of Print Open Access Review Article
Received January 16, 2024
Accepted February 14, 2024
Published April 15, 2024