Revolutionizing Geopolymer Composites: Unveiling Intelligent Wall Facades and Precision PZT Sensors for Vibration Analysis

Open Access

Year : 2024 | Volume :11 | Special Issue : 13 | Page : 59-73

    Moulya H V

  1. Chandrashekar A.

  2. Ananthayya M.B.

  1. , 1Department of Civil Engineering, Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Karnataka, India
  2. , Department of Civil Engineering, KVG College of Engineering, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Karnataka, India
  3. , 3Department of Civil Engineering, Sai Vidya Institute of Technology, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Karnataka, India


Evaluating the mechanical performance and environmental benefits of geopolymer composites is
imperative for sustainable alternatives in construction. This study presents an innovative circular
PZT-based sensor that effectively captures transient vibrations within concrete structures,
demonstrating its validity in comparison to standard surface-mounted accelerometers. The research
also elucidates the influence of sensor orientation on capturing various vibrational modes of
concrete. Furthermore, the embedded PZT sensors provide valuable insights into the evolving
mechanical properties of hydrating concrete, offering a continuous measure of concrete stiffness as it
ages. In the context of geopolymer concrete, the study showcases its environmental benefits by
comparing it with conventional cement-based concrete in the form of interlocking paver blocks. The
results reveal that geopolymer concrete, particularly the variant incorporating 100% GGBS, exhibits
superior compressive strength, reaching 92.17 N/mm² compared to 54.2 N/mm² for conventional
concrete. Additionally, PZT sensors successfully identify cracks in geopolymer composite,
highlighting its potential for improved mechanical properties and reduced environmental impact in
the construction industry.

Keywords: Geopolymer composites, PZT Sensor, Interlock, Fly ash, and GGBS

[This article belongs to Special Issue under section in Journal of Polymer and Composites(jopc)]

How to cite this article: Moulya H V, Chandrashekar A., Ananthayya M.B. Revolutionizing Geopolymer Composites: Unveiling Intelligent Wall Facades and Precision PZT Sensors for Vibration Analysis jopc 2024; 11:59-73
How to cite this URL: Moulya H V, Chandrashekar A., Ananthayya M.B. Revolutionizing Geopolymer Composites: Unveiling Intelligent Wall Facades and Precision PZT Sensors for Vibration Analysis jopc 2024 {cited 2024 Feb 26};11:59-73. Available from:

Full Text PDF Download

Browse Figures


  1. Constantin, E.C.; Chris, G.K.; Georgia, M.A.; et al., Application of smart piezoelectric materials in a wireless admittance monitoring system. (WiAMS) to structure – Test in RC elements. Case Stud. Constr. Mater. 2016, 5, 1–
  2. Priya, B.; Thiyagarajan, J.; Monica, B.; et al., EMI based monitoring of early-age characteristics of concrete and comparison of serial/parallel multi-sensing technique. Constr. Build. Mater. 2018, 191, 1268–1284.
  3. Bakharev T, Resistance of Geopolymer Materials to Acid Attack, Cement and Concrete Research, 35, 2005, 658–670,
  4. Raijiwala D B and Patil H S, Geopolymer concrete, a green concrete, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2nd Int. Conf. on Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering 2010 (Cairo, Egypt, Nov.)
  5. Y H M Amran, R Alyousef, H Alabduljabbar M et al., Clean production and properties of geopolymer concrete; a review, J. Clean. Prod. 251 2020, 119679.
  6. Hussein Hamada, Bassam Tayeh, Fadzil Yahaya, et al., Effects of nano-palm oil fuel ash and nano-eggshell powder on concrete, Construction and Building Materials, 2020, Volume 261, 119790, ISSN 0950-0618,
  7. Tayeh B.A., H. Hanoona, M. Alqedra, et al., Investigating the effect of sulfate attack on compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete, J. Eng. Res. Technol. 4 (4) (2017).
  8. Amin M., B.A. Tayeh, Investigating the mechanical and microstructure properties of fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete under elevated temperatures, Case Stud. Constr. Mater. 13, 2020, e00459.
  9. Hussein M Hamada, Blessen Skariah Thomas, Bassam Tayeh, et al., Use of oil palm shell as an aggregate in cement concrete: A review, Construction and Building Materials, 2020, Volume 265, 120357, ISSN 0950-0618,
  10. Tayeh B.A., M.W. Hasaniyah, A.M. Zeyad, et al., Durability and mechanical properties of seashell partially- replaced cement, J. Build. Eng. 31 (2020), 101328.
  11. Moulya H.V, Vikram Kedambadi Vasu, Praveena B.A, et al., Study on acoustic properties of polyester – Fly ash CenosphereNanographene composites, Materials Today: Proceedings, 2022, Volume 52, Part 3, Pages 1272–1277, ISSN 2214-7853,
  12. Hassan A M. Arif, M. Shariq, A review of properties and behaviour of reinforced geopolymer concrete structural elements- a clean technology option for sustainable development, Clean. Prod. 245 (2020), 118762.
  13. Tayeh B A, D M Al Saffar, A S Aadi, et al., Sulphate resistance of cement mortar contains glass powder, King Saud Univ.-Eng. Sci. (2019).
  14. Alaloul W S, M A Musarat, B A Tayeh, et al., Mechanical and deformation properties of rubberized engineered cementitious composite (ECC), Case Stud. Constr. Mater. 13 (2020), e00385.
  15. Laflamme S, SaleemH, VasanB, et al., Elastomeric capacitor network for strain sensing over large surfaces. IEEE/ ASME Trans Mech 2013; 18:1647–54.
  16. Laflamme S, Kollosche M, Connor JJ, et al., Robust flexible capacitive surface sensor for structural health monitoring applications. ASCE J EngMech 2012; 139:879–85.
  17. Wen S, Chung D, Model of piezo resistivity in carbon fiber cement. Cem ConcrRes2006; 36:1879–85.
  18. J Pan, C Zhang, X Zhang, et al., Real-time accurate do meter velocity estimation aided by accelerometers, Measurement 91(2016)468–473.
  19. Kavitha, R.J.Daniel, K.Sumangala, Design and analysis of MEMS comb drive capacitive accelerometer for SHM and seismic applications, Measurement 93 (2016) 327–339.
  20. Venugopal, A.Agrawal, S.V.Prabhu, Performancee valuation of piezoelectric and differential pressure sensor for vortex flowmeters, Measurement 50(2014) 10–18.
  21. Y J Li, G C Wang, J.Zhang, Z.-Y.Jia, Dynamic characteristics of piezoelectric six dimensional heavy force/moment sensor for large-load robotic manipulator, Measurement 45(2012)1114–1125.
  22. V. Moulya, A. Chandrashekhar, Experimental Investigation of Effect of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Properties on the Mechanical and Durability Characteristics of Geopolymer Concrete, Materials Today: Proceedings, 2022, Volume 59, Part 3, Pages 1700–1707, ISSN 2214-7853,
  23. A Maekawa, T Takahashi, T Tsuji, et al., Experimental validation of non-contacting measurement method using LED-optical displacement sensors for vibration stress of small-borepiping, Measurement 71(2015)1–10.
  24. J G Chen, N Wadhwa, Y J Cha, Modal identification of simple structures with high-speed video using motion magnification, J.Sound Vib.345(2015)58–71.
  25. D Lau, Q Qiu, Are view of non-destructive testing approached using mechanical and electromagnetic waves, Proceedings of the SPIE 9804, Non-destructive Characterization and Monitoring of Advanced Materials, Aerospace, and Civil Infrastructure 2016, 98042E, April22,2016, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States, (2016).
  26. C Hsiao, C C Cheng, T Liou, et al., Detecting flaws in concrete blocks using the impact-echo method, NDTandEInt.41(2008)98–107.
  27. Xiaolong Liao, Qixiang Yan, Haojia Zhong, et al., Integrating PZT-enabled active sensing with deep learning techniques for automatic monitoring and assessment of early-age concrete strength. Volume 211, April 2023, 112657

Special Issue Open Access Original Research
Volume 11
Special Issue 13
Received November 17, 2023
Accepted December 14, 2023
Published February 26, 2024