Hydrothermal modification of carbon fiber fabrics by ZnO nanorods for mechanical strengthening of CFRP laminates

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    Ravi Shankar Rai

  1. K. Payal Senapaty

  2. Nandkishor Marotrao Sawai

  3. Milind Motiram Patil

  4. Vivek Bajpai

  1. Assistant Professor, Department of Automation and Robotics, Sandip Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Maharashtra, India
  2. Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sandip Institute of Engineering and Management, Maharashtra, India
  3. Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sandip Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Maharashtra, India
  4. Professor and Principal, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sandip Institute of Technology and Research Centre,, Maharashtra, India
  5. Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), Jharkhand, India


Hexagonal ZnO nanorods were produced on plain woven carbon fiber using a two-step seed-assisted hydrothermal procedure. By varying the process parameters such as molar concentrations, number of seeding cycles, and growth duration at a controlled growth temperature of 90 °C, it is feasible to produce ZnO nanostructures with a range of morphologies, including nanowires, hexagonal nanorods, and nanoflowers. The developed morphologies were examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy and the elemental compositions by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The length of the seeding and growth treatments significantly impacts how nanostructures grow. Using the vacuum bagging technique, a laminated composite comprised of ZnO-orchestrated woven carbon fiber (WCF) with epoxy resin as the matrix. The most intriguing outcome of this work is how generated nanorods affect laminated composite impact strength due to better interfacial contact. The impact energy absorption capacity will alter because of fluctuations in ZnO’s convergence over time. ZnO grown on WCF, however, has led to the emergence of unique failure modes that characterize the fracture mechanism of hybrid composite materials, such as ZnO nanorod pullout and ZnO nanorod breakage. The most significant gains in impact strength, tensile strength, elastic modulus, and in-plane shear were obtained by the ZnO-modified composite at a concentration of 30 mM, with corresponding percentage increases of 39%, 38%, 32%, and 6%. A promising method of functionalization to achieve desired material characteristics for structural applications is the formation of ZnO nanostructures on WCF. Based on these outcomes, the hybrid composites that have been produced offer potential regarding utilization in the development of aviation and automotive industries. The developed composite materials are highly desirable for these industries because they have high impact strength, modulus, lightweight properties, and low void content.

Keywords: ZnO, Carbon fiber, Nanorods, Hydrothermal process, Impact energy absorption, Laminated composite

How to cite this article: Ravi Shankar Rai, K. Payal Senapaty, Nandkishor Marotrao Sawai, Milind Motiram Patil, Vivek Bajpai Hydrothermal modification of carbon fiber fabrics by ZnO nanorods for mechanical strengthening of CFRP laminates jopc ; :-
How to cite this URL: Ravi Shankar Rai, K. Payal Senapaty, Nandkishor Marotrao Sawai, Milind Motiram Patil, Vivek Bajpai Hydrothermal modification of carbon fiber fabrics by ZnO nanorods for mechanical strengthening of CFRP laminates jopc {cited };:-. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/jopc/article=/view=131715

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Open Access Original Research
Received October 30, 2023
Accepted December 20, 2023