Restructuring of Sanitation Structures: Reviewing Technological Changes

Open Access

Year : 2024 | Volume : 11 | Special Issue : 12 | Page : 67-80
By

    Patil Abhijeet

  1. Sangami Sanjeev

  2. Chandak Piyush

1.1 Research Scholar, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

1.2 Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Jain College of Engineering, Belgaum, Karnataka, India

1.3 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Annasaheb Dange College of Engineering & Technology, Sangli, Maharashtra, India

2.1 Professor & H.O.D., Department of Civil Engineering, Jain College of Engineering, Belgaum, Karnataka, India

2.2 Research Supervisor, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

3.1 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Annasaheb Dange College of Engineering & Technology, Ashta, Sangli, Maharashtra India

3.2 Research Supervisor, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Abstract

This paper comprehensively reviews the latest technological advancements in rural sanitation systems, focusing on developing urinals and toilets. In many rural areas, improper toilet waste disposal directly into water bodies has led to environmental contamination. In addressing this issue, biological processes are used to degrade fecal matter. However, contemporary challenges include bacterial infections from unhygienic toilets, persistent foul odors, and poorly designed toilet pans. Additionally, more community engagement is needed to improve effective sanitation management. These limitations underscore the need for technological innovation in sanitation. The study investigates advancements such as enhanced toilet pan designs, creating of organic fertilizer from human waste, the integrating of artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things in sanitation, and the imperative of community collaboration alongside governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote sanitary facility usage. A significant focus is placed on fecal waste composting. The research encompasses developments from the 1980s to the present day. Notable progress in sanitation technology is highlighted through an extensive literature review. The paper emphasizes incorporating technological innovations when designing sanitation infrastructure in any locality. Among the emerging technologies, Biochar utilization, Perforated urinals, waterless urinals, urine-diverting toilets, community-led total sanitation, Mechanical Automatic Urinal Toilet Flushers, innovative toilet systems, and collaborative robotics methods have gained prominence in recent years. The paper further examines potential modifications based on the reviews conducted. An innovative concept, the Eco toilet, powered by solar energy to minimize waste, is introduced. Also referred to as a sensor-operated solar-based urine-diverting toilet, this concept holds promise for sustainable sanitation solutions.

Keywords: Toilet; Urinal; Organic Fertilizer; Biochar; sanitation structure.

[This article belongs to Special Issue under section in Journal of Polymer and Composites(jopc)]

How to cite this article: Patil Abhijeet, Sangami Sanjeev, Chandak Piyush Restructuring of Sanitation Structures: Reviewing Technological Changes jopc 2024; 11:67-80
How to cite this URL: Patil Abhijeet, Sangami Sanjeev, Chandak Piyush Restructuring of Sanitation Structures: Reviewing Technological Changes jopc 2024 {cited 2024 Feb 20};11:67-80. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/jopc/article=2024/view=131257

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Special Issue Open Access Review Article
Volume 11
Special Issue 12
Received October 30, 2023
Accepted November 30, 2023
Published February 20, 2024