Restructuring of Sanitation Structures: Reviewing Technological Changes

Year : | Volume : 11 | Issue : | Page : –

    Patil Abhijeet

  1. Sangami Sanjeev

  2. Chandak Piyush

  1. Research Scholar, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Jain College of Engineering, Annasaheb Dange College of Engineering & Technology, Karnataka, India
  2. Professor & HOD, Department of Civil Engineering, Jain College of Engineering, Karnataka, India
  3. , Department of Civil Engineering, Annasaheb Dange College of Engineering & Technology, Karnataka, India


This paper comprehensively reviews the latest technological advancements in rural sanitation systems, focusing on developing urinals and toilets. In many rural areas, improper toilet waste disposal directly into water bodies has led to environmental contamination. In addressing this issue, biological processes are used to degrade fecal matter. However, contemporary challenges include bacterial infections from unhygienic toilets, persistent foul odors, and poorly designed toilet pans. Additionally, more community engagement is needed to improve effective sanitation management. These limitations underscore the need for technological innovation in sanitation. The study investigates advancements such as enhanced toilet pan designs, creating of organic fertilizer from human waste, the integrating of artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things in sanitation, and the imperative of community collaboration alongside governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote sanitary facility usage. A significant focus is placed on fecal waste composting. The research encompasses developments from the 1980s to the present day. Notable progress in sanitation technology is highlighted through an extensive literature review. The paper emphasizes incorporating technological innovations when designing sanitation infrastructure in any locality. Among the emerging technologies, Biochar utilization, Perforated urinals, waterless urinals, urine-diverting toilets, community-led total sanitation, Mechanical Automatic Urinal Toilet Flushers, innovative toilet systems, and collaborative robotics methods have gained prominence in recent years. The paper further examines potential modifications based on the reviews conducted. An innovative concept, the Eco toilet, powered by solar energy to minimize waste, is introduced. Also referred to as a sensor-operated solar-based urine-diverting toilet, this concept holds promise for sustainable sanitation solutions.

Keywords: Toilet; Urinal; Organic Fertilizer; Biochar; sanitation structure.

How to cite this article: Patil Abhijeet, Sangami Sanjeev, Chandak Piyush Restructuring of Sanitation Structures: Reviewing Technological Changes jopc ; :-
How to cite this URL: Patil Abhijeet, Sangami Sanjeev, Chandak Piyush Restructuring of Sanitation Structures: Reviewing Technological Changes jopc {cited };:-. Available from:

Full Text PDF


Bhatia, M., Kaur, S., & Sood, S. K. (2020) “IoT-inspired smart toilet system for home-based urine infection prediction”. ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare, 1(3), 1-25.
Blackett, Adelle. (2014) “Introductory note to the decent work for domestic workers convention, 2011 (No. 189) and Recommendation (No. 201).” International Legal Materials1: 250-266.
Bustamante, D. G., Perez, A. M., Calderon-Cerquera, K., Orozco-Donneys, C., Orozco, A. M., Giron-Sedas, J. A., & Perea, J. D. (2021) “Tech Lunar Toilet: A STEM Project with High School Students”. European Journal of STEM Education, 6(1), 8.
Ciotti, Marco, et al. (2020) “The COVID-19 pandemic.” Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences6: 365-388.
Eom, Y. S., Oh, H., Cho, J., & Kim, J. (2021). Social acceptance and willingness to pay for a smart Eco-toilet system producing a Community-based bioenergy in Korea. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 47, 101400.
Gong, M., Li, K., Tian, T., Mao, X., & Wang, (2020, November) “Research and analysis on the development of intelligent toilet”. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1684, No. 1, p. 012038). IOP Publishing C.
González Salgado, I. (2017). Optimization and monitoring of two pilots plants: a mesophilic anaerobic digester and urine diversion toilets in a context of source separation wastewater management.
Haque, M. S. (2019). Sustainable use of plastic brick from waste PET plastic bottle as building block in Rohingya refugee camp: a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(36), 36163-36183.
Hutton, Guy, and Claire Chase. (2016) “The knowledge base for achieving the sustainable development goal targets on water supply, sanitation and hygiene.” International journal of environmental research and public health6: 536.
Kvarnström, E., McConville, J., Bracken, P., Johansson, M. (2012). EcoSanRes Publication Series 2012-1: EcoSanRes Guidelines for Ecological Sanitation, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
Kirk, C. P., & Rifkin, L. S. (2020) “I’ll trade you diamonds for toilet paper: Consumer reacting, coping and adapting behaviors in the COVID-19 pandemic”. Journal of business research, 117, 124-131.
Macedo, L. S. V. D., Bellezoni, R. A., Oliveira, J. A. P. D., Salehi, P., Currie, P., Jones, A., … & Boothroyd, T. (2022). Innovating in urban green and blue infrastructure to improve the food-water-energy nexus: an implementation guide for cities and subnational governments.
Mbonu, C. C., et al. (2022) “Smart Toilets and Toilet Gadgets in Sustainable Smart Cities: An Overview of Personal Health Monitoring.” Advanced Manufacturing in Biological, Petroleum, and Nanotechnology Processing: Application Tools for Design, Operation, Cost Management, and Environmental Remediation: 143-156.
Meegoda, J. N., Hsieh, H. N., Rodriguez, P., & Jawidzik, J. (2012). Sustainable community sanitation for a rural hospital in Haiti. Sustainability, 4(12), 3362-3376.
Patrick, M., Tsige, Y., Adow, A., Abdirashid, M., Yunis, H., Githiri, D., … & Handzel, T. (2021). Acceptability of urine diversion dry toilets in Dollo Ado refugee camp, Ethiopia. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 234, 113745.
Shah, A., Karmiani, D., Mehta, D., & Kulkarni, S. (2020) “Solar Powered Self-Cleaning Toilet”. In International Conference on Business Management, Innovation & Sustainability (ICBMIS).
Sridhar, M. K. C., O. T. Okareh, and M. Mustapha. (2020) “Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices on water, sanitation, and hygiene in some selected LGAs in Kaduna State, Northwestern Nigeria.” Journal of environmental and public health
Tilley, E., Ulrich, L., Lüthi, C., Reymond, P., Zurbrügg, C. (2014). Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (2nd Revised Edition). Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and Sandec, Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
Tierney, R. (2017). The potential of reverse innovation to improve urban toilets(Doctoral dissertation).
Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P., and Christian G. Meyer. (2020) “The COVID‐19 epidemic.” Tropical medicine & international health3: 278.
World Health Organization. (2021) “Progress on household drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2000-2020: five years into the SDGs”.
Yang, Li, et al. (2020) “COVID-19: Immunopathogenesis and Immunotherapeutics.” Signal transduction and targeted therapy1: 128.
Zhang, Z., Shi, Q., He, T., Guo, X., Dong, B., Lee, J., & Lee, C. (2021). Artificial intelligence of toilet (AI-Toilet) for an integrated health monitoring system (IHMS) using smart triboelectric pressure sensors and image sensor. Nano Energy, 90, 106517.

Open Access Review Article
Received October 30, 2023
Accepted November 30, 2023

function myFunction2() {
var x = document.getElementById(“browsefigure”);
if ( === “block”) { = “none”;
else { = “Block”; }
document.querySelector(“.prevBtn”).addEventListener(“click”, () => {
document.querySelector(“.nextBtn”).addEventListener(“click”, () => {
var slideIndex = 1;
function changeSlides(n) {
showSlides((slideIndex += n));
function currentSlide(n) {
showSlides((slideIndex = n));
function showSlides(n) {
var i;
var slides = document.getElementsByClassName(“Slide”);
var dots = document.getElementsByClassName(“Navdot”);
if (n > slides.length) { slideIndex = 1; }
if (n ( = “none”));
item => (item.className = item.className.replace(” selected”, “”))
slides[slideIndex – 1].style.display = “block”;
dots[slideIndex – 1].className += ” selected”;