Mechanical Performance Degradation of Naturally Aged Nitrile Butadiene Rubber in Low Frequency Range…

Open Access

Year : 2022 | Volume : | Issue : 1 | Page : 68-79
By

    Syam Prasad Amminen

  1. Ch. Nagaraju

  2. D. Linga Raju

  1. Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, JNTUK, Kakinada, India
  2. Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Maturi Venkata Subba Rao (MVSR) Engineering College, Telangana, India

Abstract

For good mechanical design, damping is often still an invisible requirement. Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) has a wide range of applications as a damping and sealing material. To offer the long-term service of NBR, it is important to estimate the degradation of modal properties under complex mechanical and environmental loading. The present work aims to correlate the experimental data with generalized higher-order Maxwell models and curve fitting techniques to find the damping characteristics of NBR in low-frequency ranges with age. Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic, and it is allowed to age naturally in the oxidative environment with no load. Mechanical tests are performed to find hardness, true stress-strain behavior, and failure stress of virgin NBR and the naturally aged NBR. Deterioration of damping ability of NBR is studied by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) tests to relate the complex properties of naturally aged material at an operating temperature of 40˚C, with virgin material in the frequency domain. The developed curve fitting techniques are well acceptable with experimental data and higher-order maxwell models. Relaxation modulus in shear mode is calculated for virgin and aged NBR. Based on experimental results, it has been observed that the Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, tensile strength, Elastic modulus are deteriorated with natural oxidative aging. Modal properties of NBR namely storage modulus by 52%, loss modulus by 66%, loss factor by 31%, relaxation modulus by 43.9%, and damping coefficient by 31.25%, as well as damping ability has deteriorated with age.

Keywords: Damping, DMA, Frequency, Maxwell model, NBR.

[This article belongs to Journal of Polymer and Composites(jopc)]

How to cite this article: Syam Prasad Amminen, Ch. Nagaraju, D. Linga Raju Mechanical Performance Degradation of Naturally Aged Nitrile Butadiene Rubber in Low Frequency Range… jopc 2022; 10:68-79
How to cite this URL: Syam Prasad Amminen, Ch. Nagaraju, D. Linga Raju Mechanical Performance Degradation of Naturally Aged Nitrile Butadiene Rubber in Low Frequency Range… jopc 2022 {cited 2022 Apr 19};10:68-79. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/jopc/article=2022/view=90224

Full Text PDF Download

Browse Figures

References

1. Q. Peng, Z. Zhu, C. Jiang, H. Jiang, Effect of stress relaxation on accelerated physical aging of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber using time-temperature-strain superposition principle, Adv. Ind. Eng. Polym. Res. 2 (2019) 61–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aiepr.2019.03.002.
2. C. Bendjaouahdou, S. Bensaad, Aging studies of a polypropylene and natural rubber blend, Int. J. Ind. Chem. 9 (2018) 345–352. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40090-018-0163-2.
3. J. Feng, Q. Zhang, Z. Tu, W. Tu, Z. Wan, M. Pan, H. Zhang, Degradation of silicone rubbers with different hardness in various aqueous solutions, Polym. Degrad. Stab. 109 (2014) 122–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2014.07.011.
4. S.-S. Choi, J.-C. Kim, Lifetime prediction and thermal aging behaviors of SBR and NBR composites using crosslink density changes, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18 (2012) 1166–1170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2012.01.011.
5. P. Lyu, W. Li, Y. Ma, Y. Cui, Effect of ageing on constrained damping structure of viscoelastic material, AIP Conf. Proc. 2036 (2018) 030003. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5075656.
6. T. Ge, X.-H. Huang, Y.-Q. Guo, Z.-F. He, Z.-W. Hu, Investigation of Mechanical and Damping Performances of Cylindrical Viscoelastic Dampers in Wide Frequency Range, Actuators. 10 (2021) 71. https://doi.org/10.3390/act10040071.
7. M. Vašina, M. Pöschl, P. Zádrapa, A Study of Significant Factors Affecting Viscoelastic Damping Properties of Polymer Materials, Manuf. Technol. 18 (2018) 523–529. https://doi.org/10.21062/ujep/132.2018/a/1213-2489/MT/18/3/523.
8. R. Lakes, R.S. Lakes, Viscoelastic Materials, Cambridge University Press, 2009.
9. D.I.G. Jones, Handbook of Viscoelastic Vibration Damping, John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
10. Y.S. Ko, W.C. Forsman, Dynamic Mechanical Testing of Viscoelastic Solids in Free and Forced Oscillation: Experiments with a Modified Weissenberg Rheogoniometer, Int. J. Polym. Mater. Polym. Biomater. 8 (1980) 53–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/00914038008077934.
11. C.S. Woo, S.S. Choi, S.B. Lee, H.S. Kim, Useful Lifetime Prediction of Rubber Components Using Accelerated Testing, IEEE Trans. Reliab. 59 (2010) 11–17. https://doi.org/10.1109/TR.2010.2042103.
12. Y. Qian, H. Xiao, M. Nie, Y. Zhao, Y. Luo, S. Gong, Lifetime Prediction and Aging Behaviors of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber under Operating Environment of Transformer, J. Electr. Eng. Technol. 13 (2018) 918–927. https://doi.org/10.5370/JEET.2018.13.2.918.
13. B. Musil, M. Johlitz, A. Lion, On the ageing behaviour of NBR: chemomechanical experiments, modelling and simulation of tension set, Contin. Mech. Thermodyn. 32 (2020) 369–385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00161-018-0728-5.
14. M. Nait Abdelaziz, G. Ayoub, X. Colin, M. Benhassine, M. Mouwakeh, New developments in fracture of rubbers: Predictive tools and influence of thermal aging, Int. J. Solids Struct. 165 (2019) 127–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2019.02.001.
15. J. Liu, X. Li, L. Xu, P. Zhang, Investigation of aging behavior and mechanism of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) in the accelerated thermal aging environment, Polym. Test. 54 (2016) 59–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2016.06.010.
16. Q.Y. Tang, W.F. Zhang, Environmental Factors on Aging of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR) – A Review, Adv. Mater. Res. 1033–1034 (2014) 987–990. https://doi.org/10.4028/ www.scientific.net/AMR.1033-1034.987.
17. Y. Xiong, G. Chen, S. Guo, G. Li, Lifetime prediction of NBR composite sheet in aviation kerosene by using nonlinear curve fitting of ATR-FTIR spectra, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 19 (2013) 1611–1616. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2013.01.031.
18. T. Nakagawa, T. Toya, M. Oyama, Ozone Resistance of Highly Saturated Nitrile Rubber (HNBR), J. Elastomers Plast. 24 (1992) 240–261. https://doi.org/10.1177/009524439202400307.
19. W. Zheng, X. Zhao, Q. Li, T.W. Chan, L. Zhang, S. Wu, Compressive stress relaxation modeling of butadiene rubber under thermo-oxidative aging, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 134 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1002/app.44630.
20. A. Plota, A. Masek, Lifetime Prediction Methods for Degradable Polymeric Materials—A Short Review, Materials. 13 (2020) 4507. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13204507.
21. Review of Accelerated Ageing Methods and Lifetime Prediction Techniques for Polymeric Materials, National Physical Laboratory, 2005.
22. T. Ozawa, A New Method of Analyzing Thermogravimetric Data, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 38 (1965) 1881–1886. https://doi.org/10.1246/bcsj.38.1881.
23. M. Hussain, S. Yasin, H. Memon, Z. Li, X. Fan, M.A. Akram, W. Wang, Y. Song, Q. Zheng, Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Silica/Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Vulcanizates with Eco-Friendly Ionic Liquid, Polymers. 12 (2020) 2763. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12112763.
24. E.J. Graesser, C.R. Wong, The Relationship of Traditional Damping Measures for Materials with High Damping Capacity., David Taylor Research Center Bethesda MD Ship Materials Engineering DEPT, 1991. https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA235347 (accessed February 15, 2022).
25. J.D. Ferry, Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers, John Wiley & Sons, 1980.
26. M.L. Williams, P.J. Blatz, R.A. Schapery, Fundamental Studies Relating to Systems Analysis OF Solid Propellants:, Defense Technical Information Center, Fort Belvoir, VA, 1961. https://doi.org/10.21236/AD0256905.
27. N.W. Tschoegl, The Phenomenological Theory of Linear Viscoelastic Behavior: An Introduction, Springer-Verlag, 1989.
28. M. Baumgaertel, H.H. Winter, Determination of discrete relaxation and retardation time spectra from dynamic mechanical data, Rheol. Acta. 28 (1989) 511–519. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01332922.
29. R. Han, Y. Wu, X. Quan, K. Niu, Effects of crosslinking densities on mechanical properties of nitrile rubber composites in thermal oxidative aging environment, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 137 (2020) 49076. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.49076.
30. C. Tzikang, Determining a Prony Series for a Viscoelastic Material From Time Varying Strain Data, NASA Langley Technical Report Server, 2000.


Regular Issue Open Access Article
Volume 10
Issue 1
Received March 8, 2022
Accepted March 23, 2022
Published April 19, 2022