Shaikh Azharuddin Kutubuddin
Friction materials are very important for the safe moving of automobiles and the safety of people. As the pad slides against its match, the moving energy is turned into heat by the friction. As the vehicle’s speed is lost as heat in the pads and rotors, the friction at the contact slows it down. Lubricants are compounds that are applied to moving parts to reduce friction and wear. Used primarily at the point where they intersect. This paper investigates and reviews the application of solid and semi-solid lubricants in a range of industries. The use of solid lubricants as a substitute for petroleum-based oils has increased in recent years due to their perceived environmental benefits. When a thickening agent is used with a liquid lubricant, the resulting lubricating grease has a consistency somewhere between “solid to semi-fluid.” The next sections contain reviews of articles that can help you learn more about lubricants, their qualities, grades, and so on. Furthermore, the differences between solid and semisolid lubricants are highlighted. There were also displays of other solid and semi-solid lubricants that serve the same audience as the featured product. With a focus on high temperatures, this research summarizes the most current advancements in solid lubricants, self-lubricating composites/coatings, and their important functionalities across a variety of operating settings. Several representative soft metals, layered structure materials (e.g. graphite, hexagonal boron nitride, transition metallic dichalcogenides, MAX phase), chemically stable fluorides, binary or ternary metallic oxides, especially alkaline earth chromates, and sulfates are considered, as are the additive properties of these solid lubricants.
Keywords: Lubricants, Solid, Semi–Solid, Grease, Oils
This article belongs to Special Issue Conference International Conference on Innovative Concepts in Mechanical Engineering (ICICME – 2023)
1. Rudenko, P., & Bandyopadhyay, A. Surface-Reconditioning Additives Based on Solid Inorganic Nanoparticles for Environment-Friendly Industrial Lubricating Compositions. Thesis, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, 2013, WA 99164.
M. E. Campbell, John B. Loser and Eldon Sneegas, 1966. Solid Lubricants, NASA,
3. S., Nehal, and Amal M.. ‘Lubrication and Lubricants’. Tribology – Fundamentals and Advancements. InTech. 2013, doi:10.5772/56043.
4. Kumar R., Antonov M., Liu L., Hussainova I.. Sliding wear performance of in-situ spark plasma sintered Ti-TiBw composite at temperatures up to 900°C. Wear.; 2021, 476:203663.
5. Zhu S., Cheng J., Qiao Z., Yang J. High temperature solid-lubricating materials: A review. Tribol. Int. 2018;133:206–223.
6. Marques A., Suarez M.P., Sales W.F., Machado R. Turning of Inconel 718 with whisker-reinforced ceramic tools applying vegetable-based cutting fluid mixed with solid lubricants by MQL. J. Mater. Process. Technol.; 2018, 266:530–543.
7. Antonov M., Klimczyk P., Kumar R., Tamre M., Zahavi A. Performance of Al2O3-cBN materials and the perspective of using hyperspectral imaging during cutting tests. Proc. Est. Acad. Sci. ; 2021, 70:524.
8. Shi X., Zhai W., Xu Z., Wang M., Yao J., Song S., Wang Y. Synergetic lubricating effect of MoS2 and Ti3SiC2 on tribological properties of NiAl matrix self-lubricating composites over a wide temperature range. Mater. Des. 2014, 55:93–103.
9. Miyoshi K. Solid Lubricants and Coatings for Extreme Environments: State-of-the-Art Survey. NASA; Washington, 2007, DC, USA:.
10. Kumar R., Antonov M. Self-lubricating materials for extreme temperature tribo-applications. Mater. Today Proc. 2020, 44:4583–4589.
11. Chang L., Zhang Z., Ye L., Friedrich K. Tribological properties of high temperature resistant polymer composites with fine particles. Tribol. Int.; 2007, 40:1170–1178.
12. Chang L., Zhang Z., Zhang H., Friedrich K.. Effect of nanoparticles on the tribological behaviour of short carbon fibre reinforced poly(etherimide) composites. Tribol Int.; 2005, 38: 966–973.
13. Zhao X., Lu Z., Zhang G., Wang L., Xue Q. Self-adaptive MoS2-Pb-Ti film for vacuum and humid air. Surf. Coat. Technol. 2018, 345:152–166.
14. Li F., Zhu S., Cheng J., Qiao Z., Yang J., Tribological properties of Mo and CaF2 added SiC matrix composites at elevated temperatures. Tribol. Int. 2017, 111:46–51.
15. Cao Y., Du L., Huang C., Liu W., Zhang W. Wear behavior of sintered hexagonal boron nitride under atmosphere and water vapor ambiences. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2011, 257:10195–10200.
16. Huai W., Zhang C., Wen S. Graphite-based solid lubricant for high-temperature lubrication. Friction; 2020, 9:1660–1672. 17. Reeves C.J., Menezes P.L., Lovell M.R., Jen T.-C. Tribology for Scientists and Engineers. Springer; New York, NY, USA: Tribology of solid lubricants; pp. 2013, 447–494. 18. Zhu S., Cheng J., Qiao Z., Yang J. High temperature solid-lubricating materials: A review. Tribol. Int. 2018, 133:206–223. 19. Zhu, S.; Cheng, J.; Qiao, Z.; Yang, J., High temperature solid-lubricating materials: A review. Tribol. Int. 2019, 133, 206–223. 20. Kumar, R.; Hussainova, I.; Rahmani, R.; Antonov, M. Solid lubrication at high-temperature—A review. Materials 2022, 15, 1695. 21. Torres, H.; Ripoll, M.R.; Prakash, B. Tribological behavior of self-lubricating materials at high temperatures. Int. Mater. Rev. 2018, 63, 309–340.
22. Sliney, H.E. Evaluation of two polyimides and of an improved liner retention design for self-lubricating bushings. In Proceedings of the Joint Lubrication Conference; San Diego, CA, USA, 1984.
23. Guo, Y.; Xu, J.; Yan, C.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Jia, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhou, F.. Direct ink writing of high performance architectured polyimides with low dimensional shrinkage. Adv. Eng. Mater. 2019, 21, 1801314.
24. Yao, X.; Liu, S.; Ji, Z.; Guo, R.; Sun, C.; Guo, Y.; Wang, X.; Wang, Q.. 3D printing of PTFE-filled polyimide for programmable lubricating in the region where lubrication is needed. Tribol. Int. 2022, 167, 107405
25. K. Kakuda,. NSK Technical Journal 648, Nippon Seiko Co. Ltd., Tokyo1988.
26. J.K. Lancaster, Solid lubricants,. CRC Handbook of Lubrication–Theory and Practice of Tribology (E.R. Booser, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, II, 1984, pp. 269-290.
|Received||August 18, 2023|
|Accepted||September 20, 2023|
|Published||October 1, 2023|