This experiment is very interested in how adding titanium dioxide powder to submerged arc welding on low alloy steel plates affects the bead geometry, grain size, and hardness. The commercial fluxes were combined with powdered titanium dioxide at varying concentrations (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 12.5%). No changes were made to the welding process parameters despite the variety of welding situations. It has been shown that the inclusion of titanium dioxide significantly improves the bead geometry parameters. The optimal bead shape parameters were found at a titanium dioxide enrichment level of 5%. Titanium enrichment can be linked to amorphous ferrite formation and grain refinement in the microstructure of weld metal (WM). Increases in titanium content tend to cause the ferrite and pearlite phases’ typical grain sizes to reduce. According to a phase study of WMs, as titanium content increased, ferrite percentages rose and pearlite percentages fell. However, the hardness profile of welded parts did not follow a predictable pattern as titanium content was increased. Before mixing TiO2 powder in commercial granular flux, examine hardness, bead shape, and grain size. Use of TiO2 powder combined with commercial flux; welding conditions remain constant. TiO2’s effect on Submerged Arc Welding weld metal was compared with the results to determine an optimal ratio.
Keywords: Titanium dioxide powder; flux; bead geometry; grain size; hardness; microstructure; SAW
[This article belongs to Special Issue under section in Journal of Polymer and Composites(jopc)]
Babu NK, Talari MK, Dayou P, Zheng S, Jun W, SivaPrasad K. Influence of titanium–boron additions on grain refinement of AA6082 gas tungsten arc welds. Materials & Design. 2012 Sep 1;40: 467–75.
Beidokhti B, Koukabi AH, Dolati A. Effect of titanium addition on the microstructure and inclusion formation in submerged arc welded HSLA pipeline steel. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2009 Apr 21;209(8):4027–35.
Beidokhti B, Koukabi AH, Dolati A. Influences of titanium and manganese on high strength low alloy SAW weld metal properties. Materials Characterization. 2009 Mar 1;60(3):225–33.
Muzamil M, Wu J, Akhtar M, Patel V, Majeed A, Yang J. Multicomponent enabled MWCNTs-TiO2 nano-activating flux for controlling the geometrical behavior of modified TIG welding joint process. Diamond and Related Materials. 2019 Aug 1;97:107442.
Saini S, Singh K. Recycling of steel slag as a flux for submerged arc welding and its effects on chemistry and performance of welds. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 2021 May;114(3):1165–77.
Bose-Filho WW, Carvalho AL, Strangwood M. Effects of alloying elements on the microstructure and inclusion formation in HSLA multipass welds. Materials characterization. 2007 Jan 1;58(1):29–39.
Kumar A, Sharma K, Dixit AR. A review of the mechanical and thermal properties of graphene and its hybrid polymer nanocomposites for structural applications. Journal of materials science. 2019 Apr;54(8):5992–6026.
Wang Z, Zheng X, Zhong M, Li Z, Wang C. Crystallization behavior of CaF2-TiO2 fluxes geared towards high heat input submerged arc welding. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids. 2022 Sep 1;591:121716.
Kumar M, Pilania V, Kumar G, Chandra R. Effect of adding different powders in saw agglomerated flux on the mechanical properties of 1025 welds. IAETSD Journal for Advanced Research in Applied Sciences. 2018;5(5):158–67.
Sharma L, Chhibber R. Design and development of submerged arc welding fluxes using TiO2-SiO2-CaO and SiO2-CaO-Al2O3 flux system. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering. 2019 Aug;233(4):739–62.
Fattahi M, Nabhani N, Hosseini M, Arabian N, Rahimi E. Effect of Ti-containing inclusions on the nucleation of acicular ferrite and mechanical properties of multipass weld metals. Micron. 2013 Feb 1;45:107–14.
Chaturvedi R, Islam A, Sharma K. A review on the applications of PCM in thermal storage of solar energy. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021 Jan 1;43:293–7.
Ragavendran M, Vasudevan M, Hussain N. Study of the Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, Residual Stresses, and Distortion in Type 316LN Stainless Steel Medium Thickness Plate Weld Joints. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance. 2022 Jan 21:1–3.
Kolhe KP, Datta CK. Prediction of microstructure and mechanical properties of multipass SAW. Journal of materials processing technology. 2008 Feb 1;197(1–3):241–9.
Lu S, Fujii H, Nogi K. Marangoni convection and weld shape variations in Ar–O2 and Ar–CO2 shielded GTA welding. Materials science and engineering: A. 2004 Aug 25;380(1–2):290–7.
Xie F, Shen J, Song H, Xie X. Effects of cerium and SiC mixed particles on nanoparticle strengthening activated TIG-welded AZ31 alloy joints. Journal of Materials Research. 2018 Dec;33(24):4340–8.
Sharma A, Chaturvedi R, Sharma K, Saraswat M. Force evaluation and machining parameter optimization in milling of aluminium burr composite based on response surface method. Advances in Materials and Processing Technologies. 2022 Feb 20:1–22.
Vora J, Patel VK, Srinivasan S, Chaudhari R, Pimenov DY, Giasin K, Sharma S. Optimization of activated tungsten inert gas welding process parameters using heat transfer search algorithm: with experimental validation using case studies. Metals. 2021 Jun 19;11(6):981.
Paniagua-Mercado AM, López-Hirata VM, Muñoz ML. Influence of the chemical composition of flux on the microstructure and tensile properties of submerged-arc welds. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2005 Dec 1;169(3):346–51.
Paniagua-Mercado AM, Lopez-Hirata VM, Dorantes-Rosales HJ, Diaz PE, Valdez ED. Effect of TiO2-containing fluxes on the mechanical properties and microstructure in submerged-arc weld steels. Materials Characterization. 2009 Jan 1;60(1):36–9.
Prasad K, Dwivedi DK. Some investigations on microstructure and mechanical properties of submerged arc welded HSLA steel joints. The international journal of advanced manufacturing technology. 2008 Mar;36(5):475–83.
Trindade VB, Mello RS, Payao JC, Paranhos RP. Influence of zirconium on microstructure and toughness of low-alloy steel weld metals. Journal of materials engineering and performance. 2006 Jun;15(3):284–6.
AlIthari AS, Thahab SM, Al-Obbaidi AF. Effect of adding TiO2 nanoparticles on the impact toughness for welding joints of mild steel. Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2020 Sep 25:1–4.
|Received||December 12, 2022|
|Accepted||September 1, 2023|
|Published||September 10, 2023|