Additive Manufacturing of Rocket Propulsion System: A Review

Open Access

Year : 2022 | Volume : | Issue : 2 | Page : 1-9
By

    Nishesh Bista

  1. Surya Abhyas Gampa

  2. Vishesh Dharaiya

  1. Graduate Scholar, Aerospace Engineering, IIAEM, JAIN (Deemed-to-be- University), Karnataka, India

Abstract

In recent years plenty of research is going on to produce effective manufacturing techniques which can produce complex unique designs with reduced cost and lead time for aerospace applications. In this aspect, Additive manufacturing is getting a wide range of popularity in the aerospace manufacturing domain due to its vast applications and advantages. In terms of geometric flexibility and processing time, additive manufacturing outperforms conventional manufacturing processes. Additive manufacturing has found its place in aerospace, defence, biomedical and automotive industries. However, new application areas like space technology are opening up. This method reduces the demand for industrial infrastructure and produces decentralized products. In this study, we have reviewed the manufacturing of rocket propulsion systems through additive manufacturing techniquesWire-arc additive manufacturing and powder bed fusion are the key areas of focus for us (WAAM). These techniques help produce fewer weight components with part consolidation, reducing tooling and assembly requirements. Combustion chambers and nozzles produced using this method meet the performance requirements, they also demonstrated significant cost and schedule savings for hardware delivery. The components in rocket engines operate in extreme and harsh environments. Thus, special materials and complex geometries are required to achieve high performance. Additive manufacturing techniques can enable this, which in turn enables designer freedom from geometric constraints commonly found using traditional manufacturing techniques. Many other components such as injector systems in rocket engines can be made using additive manufacturing within less time and into a single injector head without traditional welding and joining many components A review discusses manufacturing processes, materials used and properties. It also discusses various challenges faced by additive manufacturing.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, Powder-bed-fusion, Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM), rocket engine, stereolithography.

[This article belongs to Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering(jomme)]

How to cite this article: Nishesh Bista, Surya Abhyas Gampa, Vishesh Dharaiya Additive Manufacturing of Rocket Propulsion System: A Review jomme 2022; 12:1-9
How to cite this URL: Nishesh Bista, Surya Abhyas Gampa, Vishesh Dharaiya Additive Manufacturing of Rocket Propulsion System: A Review jomme 2022 {cited 2022 Sep 03};12:1-9. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/jomme/article=2022/view=90275

Full Text PDF Download

Browse Figures

References

1. Gradl Paul, Omar Mireles, Nathan Andrews. “”Introduction to additive manufacturing for propulsion and energy systems.”” AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum. 2020.
2. Marshall, William M., et al. “”Using additive manufacturing to print a cubesat propulsion system.”” 51st AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference.2015.
3. Kerstens, Fabio, Angelo Cervone, Paul Gradl. “”End to end process evaluation for additively manufactured liquid rocket engine thrust chambers.”” Acta Astronautica 182 (2021): 454-465.
4. Zhang, Teddy, Hung C. Yang, and Colin M. Miyamoto. “”3D printing: a cost-effective and timely approach to manufacturing of low-thrust engines.”” 50th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. 2014.
5. Gradl, Paul R., et al. “”Additive manufacturing of liquid rocket engine combustion devices: a summary of process developments and hot-fire testing results.”” Joint propulsion conference. 2018.
6. Soller, S., et al. “”Development of liquid rocket engine injectors using additive manufacturing.”” 6th European Conference For Aerospace Sciences (EUCASS 2015). 2015.
7. Oztan, Cagri, and Victoria Coverstone. “”Utilization of additive manufacturing in hybrid rocket technology: A review.”” Acta astronautica 180 (2021); 130-140.
8. Trent, Morgan C. Design of Regeneratively Cooled Bi-Propellant Rocket Engine Using Additive Manufacturing. Naval Postgraduate School Monterey CA Monterey United States, 2020.
9. Fessl, J., et al. “”Liquid rocket engine design for additive manufacturing.”” Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC. Vol. 2018. 2018.
10. Jones, Carl P., et al. Additive manufacturing a liquid hydrogen rocket engine. No. M16-5225. 2016.
11. Patel, Nihar, et al. “”Design and additive manufacturing considerations for liquid rocket engine development.”” AIAA Propulsion and Energy 2019 Forum. 2019.
12. Catina, James J., and Kristen Castonguay. “”Use of Additive Manufacturing to Model and Develop Advanced Liquid Propulsion Designs.”” 51st AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. 2015.
13. Atyam, Deepak M., and Ngoc H. Nguyen. “”Designing and testing liquid engines for additive manufacturing.”” 51st AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. 2015.
14. R. Bernhard, P. Neef, T. Eismann, H. Wiche, C. Hoff, J. Hermsdorf, S. Kaierle, V. Wesling, Additive manufacturing of LMD nozzles for multi-material processing, Procedia CIRP, Volume 94,2020, Pages 336-340, ISSN 2212-8271, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2020.09.063. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212827120312488)
15. Shapiro, A. A., Borgonia, J. P., Chen, Q. N., Dillon, R. P., McEnerney, B., Polit-Casillas, R., & Soloway, L. (2016). Additive Manufacturing for Aerospace Flight Applications. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 53(5), 952–959. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.A33544
16. Dr. Ajay Misra, Dr. Joe Grady, Robert Carter, “Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components” Additive Manufacturing Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 1, 2015 NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland, OH
17. Gradl, Paul.Protz Chris Fikes, John & Ellis, David & Evans, Laura & Clark, Allison & Miller, Sandi & Hudson, Tyler. Lightweight Thrust Chamber Assemblies using Multi-Alloy Additive Manufacturing and Composite Overwrap. 2020;10.2514/6.2020-3787.
18. Gradl, Paul & Protz, Christopher. Technology advancements for channel wall nozzle manufacturing in liquid rocket engines. Acta Astronautica. 174. 10.1016/j.actaastro.2020.04.067. 2020.
19. Gradl, P. R., Protz, C. S., Cooper, K., Ellis, D., Evans, L. J., & Garcia, C. (2019). GRCop-42 development and hot-fire testing using additive manufacturing powder bed fusion for channel- cooled combustion chambers. In AIAA Propulsion and Energy 2019 Forum (p. 4228).
20. Afazov, S., Ceesay, L., Larkin, O., Berglind, L., Denmark, W., & Ozturk, E. A methodology for precision manufacture of a nozzle using hybrid laser powder-bed fusion: A case study. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 2021; 235(4), 751–760. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954405420958856
21. Woods, Matthew & Meisel, Nicholas & Simpson, Timothy & Dickman, Corey. Redesigning a Reaction Control Thruster for Metal-Based Additive Manufacturing: A Case Study in Design for additive manufacturing. V02AT03A031.10.1115/DETC2016-59722. 2016.
22. Wermuth, Loreen & Beyer, Steffen & Sebald, Torsten & Deck, Joel & Kraus, Stephan & Riss, Fabian & Brueckner, Frank & Seidel, André & Humm, Stephan & Pambaguian, Laurent & Edwards, Clive. Selective Laser Melting of Noble and Refractory Alloys for Next Generation Spacecraft Thrusters. 2015.
23. L. San Gregorio, Miguel & Xie, Kan & Wang, Ningfei & Zhang, Zun & Qin, Yu. 3D Printed molybdenum for grids and keeper electrodes in ionthruster. 2018.


Regular Issue Open Access Article
Volume 12
Issue 2
Received August 10, 2022
Accepted August 18, 2022
Published September 3, 2022