Control System Operational Protocol for Dual DC Electric Motor Configuration in Electric Vehicles

Open Access

Year : 2023 | Volume :8 | Issue : 1 | Page : 1-14
By

    C. Armenta-Déu

  1. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 28040 Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Abstract

This paper is focused on the analysis of the performance of DC electric motor for electric vehicles (EV) in urban and intercity routes. The paper analyzes the different driving conditions in both types of routes reproducing the most current situations and how they influence the electric motor performance. The study is focused on a dual electric motor configuration, series and parallel, which equips an electric vehicle prototype, evaluating the power response using both configurations, and comparing results from any of the two types of DC electric motor. A control system is proposed to commute between series and parallel configuration depending on driving conditions and type of route to maximize the performance of the electric motor. Driving routes have been segmented into five categories, acceleration, deceleration, constant velocity, ascent and descent, as representative of any urban or intercity routes. A simulation process has been carried out to reproduce real driving conditions. The simulation has been applied considering the turning speed of the electric motor as the key parameter to decide which configuration should be selected. The results of the simulation process indicates that the control system selects the working configuration depending on the turning speed of the electric motor but also on the acceleration rate.

Keywords: Electric vehicle, DC electric motor, Dual series/parallel configuration, Control system, Performance improvement

[This article belongs to Journal of Mechatronics and Automation(joma)]

How to cite this article: C. Armenta-Déu , Control System Operational Protocol for Dual DC Electric Motor Configuration in Electric Vehicles joma 2023; 8:1-14
How to cite this URL: C. Armenta-Déu , Control System Operational Protocol for Dual DC Electric Motor Configuration in Electric Vehicles joma 2023 {cited 2023 Jan 24};8:1-14. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/joma/article=2023/view=91704

Full Text PDF Download

Browse Figures

References

1. Sjoerd Bakker, Kees Maat, Bert van Wee (2014) Stakeholders interests, expectations, and strategies regarding the development and implementation of electric vehicles: The case of the Netherlands, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 66, Pages 52-64
2. Karsten Hedegaard, Hans Ravn, Nina Juul, Peter Meibomc (2012) Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe, Energy, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 356-368
3. Lina Ingeborgrud, Marianne Ryghaug (2019) The role of practical, cognitive and symbolic factors in the successful implementation of battery electric vehicles in Norway, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Volume 130, Pages 507-516
4. Gerardo Zarazua de Rubens (2019) Who will buy electric vehicles after early adopters? Using machine learning to identify the electric vehicle mainstream market, Energy, Volume 172, Pages 243-254
5. Andrés Muñoz-Villamizar, Jairo R.Montoya-Torres, Javier Faulin (2017) Impact of the use of electric vehicles in collaborative urban transport networks: A case study, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 50, Pages 40-54
6. Markus Barth, Philipp Jugert, Immo Fritsche (2016) Still under detected – Social norms and collective efficacy predict the acceptance of electric vehicles in Germany, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 37, Pages 64-77
7. Jan Schlüter, Johannes Weyer (2019) Car sharing as a means to raise acceptance of electric vehicles: An empirical study on regime change in automobility, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 60, Pages 185-201
8. Ning Wang, Linhao Tang, Huizhong Pan (2018) Analysis of public acceptance of electric vehicles: An empirical study in Shanghai, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 126, Pages 284-291
9. Burkert, Amelie, Heiko Fechtner, Benedikt Schmuelling (2021) Interdisciplinary Analysis of Social Acceptance Regarding Electric Vehicles with a Focus on Charging Infrastructure and Driving Range in Germany, World Electric Vehicle Journal, Volume 12, no. 1, page 25. https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj12010025
10. Adam Ing (2011). Public Acceptance of Electric Vehicles in Toronto. Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the ISSS – 2011, Hull, UK, Volume 55, Issue 1. Retrieved from https://journals.isss.org/index.php/proceedings55th/article/view/1708
11. Isabel Neumann, Peter Cocron, Thomas Franke and Josef F. Krems (2010)ELECTRIC VEHICLES AS A SOLUTION FOR GREEN DRIVING IN THE FUTURE? A FIELD STUDY EXAMINING THE USER ACCEPTANCE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES, Field Operational Tests and Naturalistic driving Studies / Green ITS, pages 445-453
12. Halbey J., Kowalewski S., Ziefle M. (2015) Going on a Road-Trip with My Electric Car: Acceptance Criteria for Long-Distance-Use of Electric Vehicles. In: Marcus A. (eds) Design, User Experience, and Usability: Interactive Experience Design. DUXU, 2015, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 9188. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20889-3_44
13. Makena Coffman, Paul Bernstein, Sherilyn Wee (2017) Electric vehicles revisited: a review of factors that affect adoption, Transport Reviews, Volume 37, Issue 1, pages 79-93, DOI: 10.1080/01441647.2016.1217282
14. Jingwen Wu, Hua Liao, Jin-Wei Wang, Tianqi Chen (2019) The role of environmental concern in the public acceptance of autonomous electric vehicles: A survey from China, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 60, Pages 37-46
15. Schneider U., Dütschke E., Peters A. (2014) How Does the Actual Usage of Electric Vehicles Influence Consumer Acceptance? In: Hülsmann M., Fornahl D. (eds) Evolutionary Paths Towards the Mobility Patterns of the Future. Lecture Notes in Mobility. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-37558-3_4
16. Wenbo Li, Ruyin Long, Hong Chen, Jichao Geng (2017) A review of factors influencing consumer intentions to adopt battery electric vehicles, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 78, Pages 318-328
17. Park, Eunil, Jooyoung Lim, Yongwoo Cho (2018) Understanding the Emergence and Social Acceptance of Electric Vehicles as Next-Generation Models for the Automobile Industry, Sustainability , Volume 10, no. 3, page 662. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030662
18. Fanchao Liao, Eric Molin, Bert van Wee (2017) Consumer preferences for electric vehicles: a literature review, Transport Reviews, Volume 37, Issue 3, pages 252-275, DOI: 10.1080/01441647.2016.1230794
19. VRÖSCH, Bob Johan Alexander – Consumer’ acceptance of electric vehicles in Lisbon, Lisboa: ISCTE-IUL, 2018. Dissertação de mestrado. Disponível em www:http://hdl.handle.net/10071/18980.
20. C. Armenta-Déu, J.P. Carriquiry (2020) Application of Statistical Method To Determine Battery Capacity for Electric Vehicles, Journal of Automobile Engineering and Applications, Volume 7, Issue 2, pages 40-49
21. M. Hanako Olmediall-Ishishi, C. Armenta-Déu (2020) Seasonal Variation of Electric Vehicles Autonomy: Application to AC/DC Dual Voltage Operation, Journal of Mechatronics and Automation, Volume 7, Issue 3, pages 1-16
22. C. Armenta-Déu, E. Cattin (2021) Real Driving Range in Electric Vehicles: Influence of Fuel Consumption and Carbon Emissions, World Electric Vehicle Journal, Volume 12, Issue 4, page 166
23. L. García-Arranz, C. Armenta-Déu (2021) Performance Tests To Determine Driving Range in Electric Vehicles, Journal of Mechatronics and Automation, Volume 8, Issue 2, pages 10-20
24. C. Armenta-Déu, J.P. Carriquiry (2021) Scale Simulation of Battery Performance for Electric Vehicles, International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, Volume 15, Nos 2/3, pages 164-187
25. Ricardo Maia, Marco Silva, Rui Araújo, Urbano Nunes (2011) Electric vehicle simulator for energy consumption studies in electric mobility systems, IEEE Forum on Integrated and Sustainable Transportation Systems, 29 June-1 July 2011, IEEE Xplore, INSPEC Accession Number: 12170757, DOI: 10.1109/FISTS.2011.5973655
26. Ali Emadi, Young Joo Lee, Kaushik Rajashekara (2008) Power Electronics and Motor Drives in Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics ( Volume: 55, Issue: 6, June 2008)
27. Sida Feng, Christopher L.Magee (2020) Technological development of key domains in electric vehicles: Improvement rates, technology trajectories and key assignees, Applied Energy, Volume 260, 114264
28. Agamloh, Emmanuel, Annette von Jouanne, Alexandre Yokochi (2020) An Overview of Electric Machine Trends in Modern Electric Vehicles, Machines, Volume 8, no. 2, page 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines8020020
29. E.P. Cornell, R.H. Guess, F.G. Turnbull (1977) Advanced motor developments for electric vehicles, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 128 – 134
30. New advances in electric motors, World Highways, https://www.worldhighways.com/news/new- advances-electric-motors [Accessed on 29/12/2021]
31. Tian-Hua Liu, Woei-Luen Chen (2021) Latest Advances on Electric Motor Drives, Controls, Reliability Improvement and Battery Management, https://www.frontiersin.org/research- topics/16069/latest-advances-on-electric-motor-drives-controls-reliability-improvement-and- battery-management [Accessed on 29/12/2021]
32. Advances in Energy-Efficient AC Motor Design: Soft Magnetic Composite, Horizon Technologies, 2021, https://www.horizontechnology.biz/blog/advances-in-energy-efficient-ac-motor-design- electric
33. JAMES BILLINGTON (2021) New electric motor design revealed that could ‘revolutionize’ EV performance and manufacturing, Motor Technology, electric & hybrid vehicle technology international, https://www.electrichybridvehicletechnology.com/news/motor-technology/new- electric-motor-design-revealed-that-could-revolutionize-ev-performance-and-manufacturing.html [Accessed on 29/12/2021]
34. Bhatt, Pooja and Mehar, Hemant and Sahajwani, Manish, Electrical Motors for Electric Vehicle – A Comparative Study (April 3, 2019). Proceedings of Recent Advances in Interdisciplinary Trends in Engineering & Applications (RAITEA) 2019, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3364887 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3364887
35. Jason Torchinsky (2019) A Texas Startup Claims To Have Made The Biggest Advancements In Electric Motor Designs In Over A Century, Jalopnik, https://jalopnik.com/a-texas-startup-claims- to-have-made-the-biggest-advance-1837173127 [Accessed on 29/12/2021]
36. M. Martínez-Arriaga, C. Armenta-Déu (2020) Simulation of the Performance of Electric Vehicle Batteries Under Variable Driving Conditions, Journal of Automobile Engineering and Applications, Volume 7, Issue 3, pages 1-15
37. Jiménez Felipe, Juan Carlos Amarillo, Jose Eugenio Naranjo, Francisco Serradilla, Alberto Díaz (2015) Energy Consumption Estimation in Electric Vehicles Considering Driving Style, IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 15-18 Sept. 2015, IEEE Xplore, INSPEC Accession Number: 15572805, DOI: 10.1109/ITSC.2015.25
38. N. Hashemnia, B. Asaei, “”Comparative study of using different electric motors in the electric vehicles,”” 2008 18th International Conference on Electrical Machines, 2008, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/ICELMACH.2008.4800157
39. L. Chang, “”Comparison of AC drives for electric vehicles-a report on experts’ opinion survey,”” in IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 7-11, Aug. 1994, doi: 10.1109/62.311235.
40. Singh, K.V., Bansal, H.O. & Singh, D. A comprehensive review on hybrid electric vehicles: architectures and components. J. Mod. Transport. 27, 77–107 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40534-019-0184-3
41. J. de Santiago et al., “”Electrical Motor Drivelines in Commercial All-Electric Vehicles: A Review,”” in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 475-484, Feb. 2012, doi: 10.1109/TVT.2011.2177873.
42. E. Roshandel, A. Mahmoudi, S. Kahourzade, A. Tahir and N. Fernando, “”Propulsion System of Electric Vehicles: Review,”” 2021 31st Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference (AUPEC), 2021, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/AUPEC52110.2021.9597828.
43. Learning Science and Technology. Calculation of vehicle speed from engine turning speed. https://aprendecienciaytecnologia.com/2018/09/19/como-se-calcula-la-velocidad-de-un-vehiculo- a-partir-de-las-revoluciones-del-motor/ [Accessed online: 28/01/2022]
44. https://www.mobilityhouse.com/int_en/knowledge-center/charging-time-summary [Accessed online: 20/02/2022]


Regular Issue Open Access Article
Volume 8
Issue 1
Received February 14, 2022
Accepted February 24, 2022
Published January 24, 2023