A Review on Structural Design Analysis and Environmental Auditing of Railways

Open Access

Year : 2021 | Volume : | Issue : 2 | Page : 28-39
By

    Nitish Kumar Singh

  1. Pankaj Mishra

  1. Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical, NRI Group of Institutions, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
  2. Professor, Department of Mechanical, NRI Group of Institutions, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Abstract

In the present time, Indian railway is the major transport medium. It is so efficient, economic, and services are moderate eco-friendly technology. Changes are on the basis of engineering, logistics, time and luxury. The new structure has faced lots of challenges and every day demands led to some changes day to day. In so many years of Indian railway the tracks are challenging and quite tough which carries lots of load and still stands fit. But in some cases the track or the wheel fails which causes a disaster and loses. As experimental study is quite costly and dangerous, so software study on a model can provide aprecise result safely. Here a finite element model analysis on explicit dynamics workbench of Ansys software has been carried. A 3D model of the rail and the wheel on Unigraphics software is being developed, which is uploaded on the workbench and being analyzed. First the model is being meshed and further simulated for the results. The wheel and track mechanical properties are defined by the software based on the international standards.

Keywords: Ansys, Dynamics, Modeling, FEA, Stress, Deformation, Energy and environments auditing

[This article belongs to Journal of Energy, Environment & Carbon Credits(joeecc)]

How to cite this article: Nitish Kumar Singh, Pankaj Mishra A Review on Structural Design Analysis and Environmental Auditing of Railways joeecc 2021; 11:28-39
How to cite this URL: Nitish Kumar Singh, Pankaj Mishra A Review on Structural Design Analysis and Environmental Auditing of Railways joeecc 2021 {cited 2021 Oct 05};11:28-39. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/joeecc/article=2021/view=97120

Full Text PDF Download

Browse Figures

References

1. N. Sridharan and A. K. Mallik, “Numerical analysis of vibration of beams subjected to moving loads”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1979, vol. 65,. (1), pp. 147-150.
2. S. A. Q. Siddiqui, M. F. Golnaraghi and G. R. Heppler, “Dynamics of a flexible cantilever beam carrying a moving mass”, Nonlinear Dynamics, 1998 vol. 15, pp. 137-154.
3. J. E. Akin and M. Mofld, “Numerical solution for response of beams with moving mass”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 1989, vol. 115, pp. 120-131.
4. M. Olsson, “On the fundamental moving load problem”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1991, vol. 145, (20), pp. 299-307.
5. M. Moffid and J. E. Akin, “Discrete element response of beams with travelling mass”, Advances in Engineering Structure, (1996) vol. 25, pp. 321-331.
6. H. C. Kwon, M. C. Kim and I. W. Lee, “Vibration control of bridges under moving loads”, Computers & Structures, 1998,vol. 66,(4), pp. 473-480.
7. M. A. Mahmoud and M. A. Abouzaid, “Dynamic response of a beam with a crack subject to a moving mass”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2002, vol. 256, 4, pp. 591-603.
8. J. Li, M. Su and L. Fan, “Natural frequency of railway girder bridges under vehicle loads”, Journal of Bridge Engineering, 2003, vol. 8, 4, pp. 199-203.
9. C. Bilello, L. A. Bergman and D. Kuchma, “Experimental investigation of a small-scale bridge model under a moving mass”, Journal of Structural Engineering, 2004, vol. 130,. 5, pp. 799-804.
10. C. Bilello, L. A. Bergman, “Vibration of damaged beams under a moving mass: theory and experimental validation”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2004;vol. 274, pp. 567-582.
11. Y. B. Yang, C. W. Lin and J. D. Yau, “Extracting bridge frequencies from the dynamic response of a passing vehicle”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2004; vol. 272, pp. 471-493.
12. M. Majka ad M. Hartnett, “Effects of speed, load and damping on the dynamic response of railway bridges and vehicles”, Computers and Structures, 2008; vol. 86, pp. 556-572.
13. A. Garinei and G. Risitano, “Vibrations of railway bridges for high speed trains under moving loads varying in time”, Engineering Structures, 2008; vol. 30, pp. 724-732.
14. Y. B. Yang and K. C. Chang, “Extracting the bridge frequencies indirectly from a passing vehicle: Parametric study”, Engineering Structures, 2009, vol. 31, pp. 2448-2459,
15. M. Dehestani, M. Mofid and A. Vafai, “Investigation of critical influential speed for moving mass problems on beams”, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 2009; vol. 33, pp. 3885-3895.
16. K. Liu, G. D. Roeck and G. Lombaert, “The effect of dynamic train–bridge interaction on the bridge response during a train passage”, Journal of Sound and Vibration2009, vol. 325, pp. 240- 251.
17. D. M. Siringoringo and Y. Fujino, “Estimating bridge fundamental frequency from vibration
response of instrumented passing vehicle: Analytical and experimental study”, Advances in Structural Engineering, 2009 vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 443-460.
A Review on Structural Design Analysis and Environmental Singh and Mishra © STM Journals 2021. All Rights Reserved 37
18. H. Xia, N. Zhang and W. W. Guo, “Analysis of resonance mechanism and conditions of train- bridge system”, Journal of Sound and Vibration,2006; vol. 297, pp. 810-822.
19. M. Majkaa and M. Hartnett, “Dynamic response of bridges to moving trains: A study on effects of random track irregularities and bridge skewness”, Computers and Structures,2009; vol. 87, pp. 1233-1252.
20. S. -H. Ju, H. -T. Lin and J. -Y. Huang, “Dominant frequencies of train-induced vibrations”, Journal of Sound and Vibration,2009; vol. 319, pp. 247-259.
21. H. -I. Yoon, I. -S. Son and S. -J. Ahn, “Free vibration analysis of Euler-Bernoulli beam with double cracks”, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 2007:vol. 21, pp. 476-485.
22. M. A. Mahmoud, “Stress intensity factors for single and double edge cracks in a simple beam subject to a moving load”, International Journal of Fracture,2001 vol. 111, pp. 151-161.
23. G. Michaltsos, D. Sophianopoulos and A. N. Kounadis, “The effect of a moving mass and other parameters on the dynamic response of a simply supported beam”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1996; vol. 191. 3, pp. 357-362.
24. M. A. Mahmoud, “Effect of cracks on the dynamic response of a simple beam subject to a moving load”, Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 2001, vol. 215, pp. 206-215.
25. H. -P. Lin and S. -C. Chang, “Forced responses of cracked cantilever beams subjected to a concentrated moving load”, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 48, pp. 1456-1463.
26. H. Zhong, M. Yang and Z. Gao, “Dynamic responses of prestressed bridge and vehicle through bridge-vehicle interaction analysis”, Engineering Structures, vol. 87, pp. 116-125, 2015.
27. Ouyang, H., “Moving-load dynamic problems: A tutorial (with a brief overview)”, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 2011, 25, 2039-2060.
28. Ariaei, A., Ziaei-Rad, S. and Ghayour, M, “Vibration analysis of beams with open and breathing cracks subjected to moving masses”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2009, 326, 709-724.
29. S. E. Azam, M. Mofid and R. A. Khoraskani, “Dynamic response of Timoshenko beam under moving mass”, Scientia Iranica A, 2003vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 50-56.
30. G. T. Michaltsos and A. N. Kounadis, “The effects of centripetal and Coriolis forces on the dynamic response of light bridges under moving loads”, Journal of Vibration and Control, 2001;vol. 7, pp. 315-326.
31. Y. Pala and M. Reis, “Dynamic response of a cracked beam under a moving mass load”, Journal of Engineering Mechanics,2013: vol. 129, pp. 1229-1238..
32. M. Reis and Y. Pala, “Vibration of a cracked cantilever beam under moving mass load”, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 2012;vol. 18,. 1, pp. 106-113.
33. X. Shi, C. S. Cai and S. Chen, “Vehicle induced dynamic behavior of short-span slab bridges considering effect of approach slab condition”, Journal of Bridge Engineering,2008 vol. 13, pp. 83-92.
34. E. Esmailzadeh and M. Ghorashi, “Vibration analysis of a Timoshenko beam subjected to a travelling mass”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1997;vol. 199, 4, pp. 615-628.
35. H. P. Lee, “The dynamic response of a Timoshenko beam subjected to a moving mass”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 19096;vol. 198, no. 2, pp. 249-256
36. E. Khalily, M. E. Golnaraghi and G. R. Heppler, “On the dynamic behaviour of a flexible beam carrying a moving mass”, Nonlinear Dynamics, 1994;vol. 5, pp. 493-513.
37. M. Mofid and M. Shadnam, “On the response of beams with internal hinges, under moving mass”, Advances in Engineering Software,2000 vol. 31, pp. 323-328,
38. A. O. Cifuentes, “Dynamic response of a beam excited by a moving mass”, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 1989;vol. 5, pp. 237-24.
39. A. Nikkhoo, F. R. Rofooei and M. R. Shadnam, “Dynamic behavior and modal control of beams under moving mass”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2007;vol. 306, pp. 712-724
40. D. A. Grant, “The effect of rotary inertia and shear deformation on the frequency and normal mode equations of uniform beams carrying a concentrated mass”, Journal of Sound and Vibration,1978 vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 357-365.
41. D. Thambiratnam and Y. Zhuge, “Dynamic analysis of beams on an elastic foundation subjected to moving loads”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1996;vol. 198, no. 2, pp. 149-169
Journal of Energy, Environment & Carbon Credits Volume 11, Issue 2 © STM Journals 2021. All Rights Reserved 38 ISSN: ISSN: 2249-8621
42. G. V. Rao, “Linear dynamics of an elastic beam under moving loads”, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, vol. 122, pp. 281-289, 2000.
43. A. Yavari, M. Nouri and M. Mofid, “Discrete element analysis of dynamic response of Timoshenko beam under moving mass”, Advances in Engineering,2002; vol. 33, pp. 143-153
44. M. Abu-Hilal, “Dynamic response of a double Euler–Bernoulli beam due to a moving constant load”, 2006:Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 297, pp. 477-491
45. H. P. Wang and J. L. K. Zhang, “Vibration analysis of the maglev guideway with the moving load”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2007vol. 305, pp. 621-640
46. J. Yang, Y. Chen, Y. Xiang and X. L. Jia, “Free and forced vibration of cracked inhomogeneous beams under an axial force and a moving load”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 312, pp. 166-181, 2008.
47. T. Yan, S. Kitipornchai, J. Yang and X. Q. He, “Dynamic behaviour of edge-cracked shear deformable functionally graded beams on an elastic foundation under a moving load”, Composite Structures, vol. 93, pp. 2992-3001, 2011.
48. M. Shafiei and N. Khaji, “Analytical solutions for free and forced vibrations of a multiple cracked Timoshenko beam subject to a concentrated moving load”, Acta Mechanica,2011; vol. 221, pp. 79-97.
49. S.-I. Suzuki, “Dynamic behaviour of a finite beam subjected to travelling loads with acceleration”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1977;vol. 55, no. l, pp. 65-70,.
50. T. R. Hamada, “Dynamic analysis of a beam under a moving force: a double Laplace transform solution”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 221-233, 1981.
51. H. P. Lee and T. Y. Ng, “Dynamic response of a cracked beam subject to a moving load”, Acta Mechanica, vol. 106, pp. 221-230, 1994.
52. M. Ichikawa, Y. Miyakawa and A. Matsuda, “Vibration analysis of the continuous beam subjected to a moving mass”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 230, no. 3, pp. 493-506, 2009.
53. J. J. Wu, A. R. Whittaker and M. P. Cartmell, “Dynamic responses of structures to moving bodies using combined finite element and analytical methods”, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, vol. 43, pp. 2555-2579, 2001.
54. A. K. Mallik, S. Chandra and A. B. Singh, “Steady-state response of an elastically supported infinite beam to a moving load”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 291, pp. 1148-1169, 2006.
55. K. Aydin, “Vibratory characteristics of Euler-Bernoulli beams with an arbitrary number of cracks subjected to axial load”, 2008;Journal of Vibration and Control, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 485-510.
56. R. Sieniawska, P. Sniady and S. Zukowski, “Identification of the structure parameters applying a moving load”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 2009;vol. 319, pp. 355-365
57. T. Yan and J. Yang, “Forced vibration of edge-cracked functionally graded beams due to a transverse moving load”, Procedia Engineering, vol. 14, pp. 3293-3300, 2011.
58. G. Chen, L. Qian and Q. Yin, “Dynamic analysis of a Timoshenko beam subjected to an accelerating mass using spectral element method”, Shock and Vibration, 2014, Article ID 768209.
59. R. Zarfam and A. R. Khaloo, “Vibration control of beams on elastic foundation under a moving vehicle and random lateral excitations”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 331, pp. 1217-1232, 2012.
60. C. Johansson, C. Pacoste and R. Karoumi, “Closed-form solution for the mode superposition analysis of the vibration in multi-span beam bridges caused by concentrated moving loads”, Computers and Structures, vol. 119, pp. 85-94, 2013.
61. P. Lou and F. T. K. Au, “Finite element formulae for internal forces of Bernoulli-Euler beams under moving vehicles”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 332, pp. 1533-1552, 2013.
62. P. Museros, E. Moliner and M. D. Martinez-Rodrigo, “Free vibrations of simply-supported beam bridges under moving loads: Maximum resonance, cancellation and resonant vertical acceleration”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 332, pp. 326-345, 2013.
63. R. Zarfam, A. R. Khaloo and A. Nikkhoo, “On the response spectrum of Euler–Bernoulli beams with a moving mass and horizontal support excitation”, Mechanics Research Communications, vol. 47, pp. 77-83, 2013.
A Review on Structural Design Analysis and Environmental Singh and Mishra © STM Journals 2021. All Rights Reserved 39
64. H. Azimi, K. Galal and O. A. Pekau, “A numerical element for vehicle–bridge interaction analysis of vehicles experiencing sudden deceleration”, Engineering Structures, vol. 49, pp. 792-805, 2013.
65. A. Cicirello and A. Palmeri, “Static analysis of Euler–Bernoulli beams with multiple unilateral cracks under combined axial and transverse loads”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 2014;vol. 51, pp. 1020-1029,.
66. H. Zhong, M. Yang and Z. Gao, “Dynamic responses of prestressed bridge and vehicle through bridge-vehicle interaction analysis”, Engineering Structures, vol. 87, pp. 116-125, 2015.
67. P. A. Costa, A. Colaco, R. Calcada and A. S. Cardoso, “Critical speed of railway tracks. Detailed and simplified approaches”, Transportation Geotechnics, 2015;vol. 2, pp. 30-46
68. C. Fu, “The effect of switching cracks on the vibration of a continuous beam bridge subjected to moving vehicles”, Journal of Sound and Vibration,2015; vol. 339, pp. 157-175.
69. C. Fu, “Dynamic behavior of a simply supported bridge with a switching crack subjected to seismic excitations and moving trains”, Engineering Structures, 2016;vol. 110, pp. 59-69.
70. H. Aied, A. González and D. Cantero, “Identification of sudden stiffness changes in the acceleration response of a bridge to moving loads using ensemble empirical mode decomposition”, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 66-67, pp. 314-338, 2016.
71. J. Hino, T. Yoshimura, K. Konishi and N. Ananthanarayana, “A finite element method vibration of a bridge prediction of the subjected to a moving vehicle load”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 1998;vol. 96, no. l, pp. 45-53
72. G. R. Bhashyam and G. Prathap, “Galerkin finite element method for non-linear beam vibrations”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 191-203, 1980.
73. M. Olsson, “Finite element, modal co-ordinate analysis of structures subjected to moving loads”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 99, no. l, pp. l-12, 1985.
74. T. Yoshimura, J. Hino, T. Kamata and N. Ananthanarayana, “Random vibration of a non-linear beam subjected to a moving load: A finite element method analysis,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 317-329, 1988.
75. Y. H. Lin and M. W. Trethewey, “Finite element analysis of elastic beams subjected to moving dynamic loads”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 323-342, 1990.
76. http://ispatguru.com/comparison-of-steel-with-aluminum/
77. Nayan Chanda,Mayank Yedea, Prashant Malviyaa, M.K. Pradhan “Analysis of railway wheel to study crack initiation due to thermal loading and calculating life cycle” 5th International Conference of Materials Processing and Characterization (ICMPC 2016), Proceedings 4 (2017) 2454–2463
78. Sunil Kumar Sharma, Anil Kumar “Dynamics Analysis of Wheel Rail Contact Using FEA” 12th International Conference on Vibration Problems, ICOVP 2015. Procedia Engineering 144 (2016) 1119 – 1128
79. P. Vinod, U. Koteswara Rao, Ch. Kishore Reddy “Analysis of Railway Wheel to Study the Stress Variations” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), Feb 2014ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol. 3 Issue 2.


Regular Issue Open Access Article
Volume 11
Issue 2
Received September 25, 2021
Accepted October 1, 2021
Published October 5, 2021