Cross-layer Solutions in WSN Routing: A Review

Year : 2023 | Volume : 01 | Issue : 02 | Page : 26-36

    Sheethal Raj T G

  1. Nirmala Hiremani

  1. Research Scholar, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Visvesvaraya Technological University, Karnataka, India
  2. Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, VTU Center for PG Studies, Karnataka, India


WSN is a less infrastructure wireless network which is embedded with large number of Sensor Nodes (SN). Its ad-hoc manner of device distribution allows it to monitor conditions under physical and environmental scenarios. Typically, SNs in WSN are installed in a specified geographical location to monitor required information. Due to SNs’ self-configuring ability, the exploitation of target is simpler. Though, its functioning is limited with factors such as energy efficiency, processing and memory. Therefore, various research works on cross-layer design models for WSN have been proposed. In this survey, 25 research papers are reviewed and analyzed. The analyses are categorized under routing protocols/routing models, performance measures and simulation tools. The issues that need to be solved in future are analyzed and dropped out in this survey. Finally, this research enables researchers to work on finding an optimal cross-layer solution in WSN routing.

Keywords: WSN routing, Cross-layer optimization, Performance measures, QoS parameters and Simulation tools

[This article belongs to International Journal of Wireless Security and Networks(ijwsn)]

How to cite this article: Sheethal Raj T G, Nirmala Hiremani Cross-layer Solutions in WSN Routing: A Review ijwsn 2023; 01:26-36
How to cite this URL: Sheethal Raj T G, Nirmala Hiremani Cross-layer Solutions in WSN Routing: A Review ijwsn 2023 {cited 2023 Sep 25};01:26-36. Available from:


1. Venkatesan Cherappa, Thamaraimanalan Thangarajan, Sivagama Sundari Meenakshi Sundaram, Fahima Hajjej, Arun Kumar Munusamy, Ramalingam Shanmugam. Energy-Efficient Clustering and Routing Using ASFO and a Cross-Layer-Based Expedient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2023; 23(5): 2788.

2. Xingsi Xue, Ramalingam Shanmugam, Satheesh Kumar Palanisamy, Osamah Ibrahim Khalaf, Dhanasekaran Selvaraj, Ghaida Muttashar Abdulsahib. A Hybrid Cross-layer with Harris- Hawk-Optimization-Based Efficient Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks. Symmetry. 2023; 15(2): 438.

3. Sara Raed, Salah Abdulghani Alabady. Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol Based on Cross-Layer for Wireless Sensor Networks. J Netw Secur Comput Netw. 2022 Jan–Apr; 8(1): 55–72. e-ISSN: 2581-639X

4. Arockiaraj S, Krishanamoorthi Makkithaya, Harishchandra Hebbar N. Quality of Service-Based Cross-Layer Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Int J Interact Mob Technol (IJIM). 2022; 16(20): 34–58.

5. Manish Panchal, Raksha Upadhyay, Prakash Vyavahare. Trust-Based Co-Operative Cross-Layer Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks. Int J Comput Netw Appl (IJCNA). 2022 May–Jun; 9(3): 292–304. DOI: 10.22247/ijcna/2022/212555

6. Arindam Giri, Subrata Dutta, Sarmistha Neogy, Bikrant Koirala, Keshav Dahal. Adaptive Cross-Layer Routing Protocol for Optimizing Energy Harvesting Time in WSN. Wirel Pers Commun. 2022; 122(1): 825–843. 7. Shivaji Lahane, Jariwala Krupa N. A Novel Cross-Layer Cross- Domain Routing Model and It’s Optimization for Cluster-Based Dense WSN. Wirel Pers Commun. 2021; 118(4): 2765–2784. doi:10.1007/s11277-021-08154-3

8. Aditya Tandon, Pramod Kumar, Vinay Rishiwal, Mano Yadav, Preeti Yadav. A Bio-inspired Hybrid Cross-Layer Routing Protocol for Energy Preservation in WSN Assisted IoT. KSII Trans Internet Inf Syst. 2021 Apr; 15(4): 1317–1341.

9. Shruti Birur Viswanath. JSMCRP: Cross-Layer Architecture based Joint-Synchronous MAC and Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network. ECTI Transactions on Electrical Eng., Electronics, and Communications. 2021 Feb; 19(1): 94–113.

10. Mahajan Hemant B, Anil Badarla. Cross-Layer Protocol for WSN-Assisted IoT Smart Farming Applications Using Nature Inspired Algorithm. Wirel Pers Commun. 2021; 121(4): 3125–3149. doi:10.1007/s11277-021-08866-6

11. Salah Abdulghani Alabady, Sukaina Shukur Alhajji. Designing a reliable and energy‐efficient cross‐layer protocol for wireless sensor networks. Int J Commun Syst. 2021; 34(12). doi:10.1002/dac.4904

12. Waqas Rehan, Stefan Fischer, Maaz Rehan, Yasser Mawad, Shahzad Saleem. QCM2R: A QoS-aware cross-layered multichannel multisink routing protocol for stream based wireless sensor networks. J Netw Comput Appl. 2020; 156: 102552. doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2020.102552

13. Maamar Zahra, Yulin Wang, Wenjia Ding. Cross-Layer Routing for a Mobility Support Protocol Based on Handover Mechanism in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink. Sensors. 2019; 19(13): 2843. doi:10.3390/s19132843

14. Gawas Mahadev A, Govekar Sweta S. A novel selective cross- layer based routing scheme using ACO method for vehicular networks. J Netw Comput Appl. 2019; 143: 34–46. doi:10.1016/j.jnca.2019.05.010

15. Ali Benzerbadj, Bouabdellah Kechar, Ahcene Bounceur, Bernard Pottier. Cross-Layer Greedy position-based routing for multihop wireless sensor networks in a real environment. Ad Hoc Netw. 2018; 71: 135–146. doi:10.1016/j.adhoc.2018.01.003

16. Ramnik Singh, Anil Kumar Verma. Energy efficient cross-layer based adaptive threshold routing protocol for WSN. AEU- Int J Electron Commun. 2017; 72: 166–173. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2016.12.001

17. Kalaivaani PT, Rajeswari A. Spatial Correlation Based Cross- layer Approach with Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks. Wirel Pers Commun. 2017; 94(4): 2125–2148.

18. Sachin Gajjar, Mohanchur Sarkar, Kankar Dasgupt. FAMACROW: Fuzzy and ant colony optimization based combined mac, routing, and unequal clustering cross-layer protocol for wireless sensor networks. Appl Soft Comput. 2016 Jun; 43: 235–247.

19. Hadda Ben Elhadj, Jocelyne Elias, Lamia Chaari, Lotfi Kamoun. A Priority based Cross-layer Routing Protocol for healthcare applications. Ad Hoc Netw. 2016; 42: 1–18.

20. Samira Yessad, Louiza Bouallouche-Medjkoune, Djamil Aïssani. A Cross-Layer Routing Protocol for Balancing Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks. Wirel Pers Commun. 2015; 81(3): 1303–1320. 2185-1

21. Aboobeker Sidhik, Koyamparambil Mammu, Unai Hernandez-Jayo, Nekane Sainz, Idoia De la Iglesia. Cross-Layer Cluster-Based Energy-Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2015; 15(4): 8314–8336.

22. Marwan Al-Jemeli, Hussin Fawnizu A. An Energy Efficient Cross-Layer Network Operation Model for IEEE 802.15.4-Based Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks. IEEE Sens J. 2015; 15(2): 684–692. doi:10.1109/jsen.2014.2352041

23. Guangjie Han, Yuhui Dong, Hui Guo, Lei Shu, Dapeng Wu. Cross-layer optimized routing in wireless sensor networks with duty cycle and energy harvesting. Wirel Commun Mob Comput. 2015; 15(16): 1957–1981. doi:10.1002/wcm.2468

24. David Espes, Xavier Lagrange, Luis Suárez. A cross-layer MAC and routing protocol based on slotted aloha for wireless sensor networks. Annals of Telecommunications: Ann Des Télécommun. 2014; 70(3–4): 159–169. doi:10.1007/s12243-014-0433-8

25. Nabil Ali Alrajeh, Shafiullah Khan, Jaime Lloret, Jonathan Loo. Secure Routing Protocol Using Cross-Layer Design and Energy Harvesting in Wireless Sensor Networks. Int J Distrib Sens Netw. 2013; 9(1): 374796. doi:10.1155/2013/374796

Regular Issue Subscription Review Article
Volume 01
Issue 02
Received July 20, 2023
Accepted September 2, 2023
Published September 25, 2023