- Senior Faculty, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Renaissance 148-1 Yugekamada, Kamijima-cho, Ehime, Japan
We generated alternate spin radio frequency photons by accelerating metallic valence electrons in a wire with half portions of a sine wave. To avoid standing waves from sinusoidal movement, a non-resonating transmitter was built with a non-resonating antenna. An oscilloscope at a second non-resonant receiving antenna 3 wavelengths away from the transmitter detected positive going 180-degree voltage pulses. Reversing the direction of electron excitation in the transmitter antenna caused negative going 180-degree electric pulses in the receiver. The results confirm that photons produced by radio transmissions are of two types, forward +1 spin and reverse -1 spin. In the radio wave context, we may consider a zero spin 2-photon pair as a naturally occurring unit that forms waves. This research points the way to a much higher speed communication format based on photon pulses and not wave trains.
Keywords: Oscilloscope, Photons, Reverse Spin, Antenna, MOSFET
[This article belongs to International Journal of Radio Frequency Innovations(ijrfi)]
- Landau, L.D., & Lifshitz, E.M. (1974). The angular momentum and parity of the photon. In Quantum Mechanics: A Shorter Course of Theoretical Physics (Chapter §78). Pergamon, https://archive.org/details/LDLandauAndE.M.LifshitzAuth.QuantumMechanics.AShorterCourseOfTheoreticalPhysicsPergamon1974.
- “Wikipedia”, “(21 September 2023)”, “Photons”, [Online], Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon.
- Spin angular momentum of light. (2023, June 15). In Wikipedia. Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_angular_momentum_of_light.
- Lee, C. (2014). Researchers: Forget old experiments, let’s reinvent the wheel. Retrieved from https://arstechnica.com/science/2014/07/when-is-a-single-photon-not-a-single-photon/?comments=1&comments-page=1.
- The wave function collapsed. (2023, July 22). In Wikipedia. Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_function_collapse.
- Rozema, L.A., et al. (2012). Violation of Heisenberg’s Measurement-Disturbance Relationship by Weak Measurements. Phys Rev Lett, 109(10), 100404.
- Bialynicki-Birula, I., & Bialunicka-Birula, Z. (2012). Heisenberg uncertainty relation for photons. Physical review A, Atomic, molecular, and optical physics.
- Silver, W., & Donovan, F. The beverage antenna was 100 years later. Available from https://www.arrl.org/files/file/QST/This%20Month%20in%20QST/2021/11%20November%202021/Silver%20Donovan.pdf.
- Dirac, P. (1958). Polarization of photons. In The Principles of Quantum Mechanics (Chapter 2, Section 18). Oxford Science.
- Ash, A. (2023). “Why Does Light Slow Down in a Medium…Or Does It”, Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HZD4MR0KgqA.
- Skin depth calculator. (2023, July 15). In All About Circuits. Available from https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/tools/skin-depth-calculator/.
- Antenna characteristics. (2023, July 15). In com. Available from https://www.eeeguide.com/antenna-characteristics/.
- Particle in a 1-Dimensional box. (2021, October 5). In Chem Libre Texts. Available from https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Quantum_Mechanics/05.5:_Particle_in_Boxes/Particle_in_a_1-Dimensional_box.
- Chang, D.C., (2017). On the wave nature of matter: A transition from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics [Preprint]. arXiv:physics/0505010.
|Received||August 25, 2023|
|Accepted||September 21, 2023|
|Published||November 16, 2023|