IJNCC

Effect of Abdominal Massage on the Gastric Residual Volume in Mechanically Ventilated Patients on Nasogastric Tube Feeding Admitted in ICUs of Tertiary Care Hospital

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u00a0Jyoti Pal, Kapil Sharma, Monika Sharma, P.L. Gautam,

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nJanuary 10, 2023 at 4:53 am

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nAbstract

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Enteral nutrition intolerance entails several complications such as increased gastric residual volume, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, and abdominal distension. The large quantity of Gastric Residual Volume may leads to aspiration of stomach contents, abdomen distension and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Abdominal massage or rubbing therapy is one of the applicable and effective techniques that can be useful to increase the digestive system motility, enhance the intestinal activity and decrease intra-abdominal pressure and distention. Abdominal massage is highly effective in decreasing the gastric residual volume in mechanically ventilated patient fed by a nasogastric tube.

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Volume :u00a0u00a08 | Issue :u00a0u00a02 | Received :u00a0u00a0July 19, 2022 | Accepted :u00a0u00a0July 29, 2022 | Published :u00a0u00a0August 20, 2022n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Nursing Critical Care(ijncc)] [/if 424][if 424 equals=”Special Issue”][This article belongs to Special Issue Effect of Abdominal Massage on the Gastric Residual Volume in Mechanically Ventilated Patients on Nasogastric Tube Feeding Admitted in ICUs of Tertiary Care Hospital under section in International Journal of Nursing Critical Care(ijncc)] [/if 424]
Keywords Abdominal massage, gastric residual volume and mechanically ventilated patients.

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1. Thomas S S, Krishna B, Das N, Study to assess the effectiveness of abdominal massage on gastric residual volume among patients with intermittent nasogastric tube feeding, IOSR Journal of nursing and health science, 2019, 56–58.
2. Grover A, Khashu M, Mukherjee A, Kairamkonda V, Iatrogenic malnutrition in neonatal intensive care units: urgent need to modify practice, 2008; 32(2): 140–144.
3. Narmadha S, Priyanka V, Study to assess the effectiveness of Abdominal Massage on Gastric Residual Volume among critically ill patients with Nasogastric Tube Feeding, International Journals of advances in nursing management, 2019, 2454–2652.
4. Worthington P, Balint J, Bechtold M, When Is Parenteral Nutrition Appropriate, 2017; 41(3): 324–377.
5. McClave S A, Taylor B E, Martindale RG, Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient, 2016; 40(2): 159–211.
6. Boullata J I, Holcombe B, Sacks G, Gervasio J, Adams SC, Christensen M, Standardized competency for parenteral nutrition order review and parenteral nutrition preparation, including compounding, 2016; 31(4): 548–555.
7. Momenfar F, Abdi A, Salari N & Hemmatpour B, Study the effect of abdominal massage on the gastric in intensive care units, journal of intensive care, 2018, 6:47.
8. Barker L A, Gout B S, Crowe T C, Hospital malnutrition: prevalence, identification and impact on patients and the healthcare system, Int J Environ Res Public Health; 2011, 8(2): 514–527.
9. Hiesmayr M, Nutrition risk assessment in the ICU, 2012, 15:174–180.
10. Ochoa JB, Magnuson B, Swintowsky M, Loan T, Boulanger B, McClain C, Kearney P. Long-term reduction in the cost of nutritional intervention achieved by a nutrition support service, Nutr Clin Pract; 2000, 15(4): 174–180.

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[if 424 not_equal=”Regular Issue”] Regular Issue[/if 424] Open Access Article

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International Journal of Nursing Critical Care

ISSN: 2581-6209

Editors Overview

ijncc maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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    Jyoti Pal, Kapil Sharma, Monika Sharma, P.L. Gautam

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  1. Nurse Practitioner, Associate Professor, Associate Professor, Professor & HOD,Department of Critical Care, DMC & Hospital, College of Nursing, Ludhiana, Department of Critical Care, DMC & Hospital, College of Nursing, Ludhiana, Department of Critical Care, DMC & Hospital, College of Nursing, Ludhiana, Department of Critical Care, DMC & Hospital, College of Nursing, Ludhiana,Punjab, Punjab, Punjab, Punjab,India, India, India, India
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Abstract

nEnteral nutrition intolerance entails several complications such as increased gastric residual volume, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, and abdominal distension. The large quantity of Gastric Residual Volume may leads to aspiration of stomach contents, abdomen distension and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Abdominal massage or rubbing therapy is one of the applicable and effective techniques that can be useful to increase the digestive system motility, enhance the intestinal activity and decrease intra-abdominal pressure and distention. Abdominal massage is highly effective in decreasing the gastric residual volume in mechanically ventilated patient fed by a nasogastric tube.n

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Keywords: Abdominal massage, gastric residual volume and mechanically ventilated patients.

n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Nursing Critical Care(ijncc)]

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References

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1. Thomas S S, Krishna B, Das N, Study to assess the effectiveness of abdominal massage on gastric residual volume among patients with intermittent nasogastric tube feeding, IOSR Journal of nursing and health science, 2019, 56–58.
2. Grover A, Khashu M, Mukherjee A, Kairamkonda V, Iatrogenic malnutrition in neonatal intensive care units: urgent need to modify practice, 2008; 32(2): 140–144.
3. Narmadha S, Priyanka V, Study to assess the effectiveness of Abdominal Massage on Gastric Residual Volume among critically ill patients with Nasogastric Tube Feeding, International Journals of advances in nursing management, 2019, 2454–2652.
4. Worthington P, Balint J, Bechtold M, When Is Parenteral Nutrition Appropriate, 2017; 41(3): 324–377.
5. McClave S A, Taylor B E, Martindale RG, Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient, 2016; 40(2): 159–211.
6. Boullata J I, Holcombe B, Sacks G, Gervasio J, Adams SC, Christensen M, Standardized competency for parenteral nutrition order review and parenteral nutrition preparation, including compounding, 2016; 31(4): 548–555.
7. Momenfar F, Abdi A, Salari N & Hemmatpour B, Study the effect of abdominal massage on the gastric in intensive care units, journal of intensive care, 2018, 6:47.
8. Barker L A, Gout B S, Crowe T C, Hospital malnutrition: prevalence, identification and impact on patients and the healthcare system, Int J Environ Res Public Health; 2011, 8(2): 514–527.
9. Hiesmayr M, Nutrition risk assessment in the ICU, 2012, 15:174–180.
10. Ochoa JB, Magnuson B, Swintowsky M, Loan T, Boulanger B, McClain C, Kearney P. Long-term reduction in the cost of nutritional intervention achieved by a nutrition support service, Nutr Clin Pract; 2000, 15(4): 174–180.

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International Journal of Nursing Critical Care

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[if 344 not_equal=””]ISSN: 2581-6209[/if 344]

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Volume 8
Issue 2
Received July 19, 2022
Accepted July 29, 2022
Published August 20, 2022

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IJNCC

An Exploration of Zika Virus Eruption

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u00a0Sholly C.K.,

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nJanuary 10, 2023 at 7:09 am

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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a recently rising relative of the Flaviviridae family and associated to dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIVKV). ZIKV infection was distinguished by mild disease with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, with unprecedented association with Guillain–Barre Syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Nevertheless, since the end of 2015, a rise in the number of GBS related cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and neonates in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising consequential global public health concerns. ZIKV is spread by the bite of infected female mosquitoes of Aedes species. A substantial illustration of the actual understanding of the effects of ZIKV on heath, clinical manifestation, and diagnosis and treatment options based on modern, alternative and complementary system of medicines regarding the disease will enable the health care organization for drafting and communicating policies and procedures to control the spread of this virus.

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Volume :u00a0u00a08 | Issue :u00a0u00a02 | Received :u00a0u00a0May 4, 2022 | Accepted :u00a0u00a0May 18, 2022 | Published :u00a0u00a0May 30, 2022n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Nursing Critical Care(ijncc)] [/if 424][if 424 equals=”Special Issue”][This article belongs to Special Issue An Exploration of Zika Virus Eruption under section in International Journal of Nursing Critical Care(ijncc)] [/if 424]
Keywords Arthralgia, conjunctivitis, complications, microcephaly, transmissions, zika virus

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1. Syeda Sidra Kazmi, Waqar Ali, et al. A review on Zika virus outbreak, epidemiology, transmission and infection dynamics. J biol research (Thessalon).2020;27 (5) 2. Anna R Plourde and Evan M. Bloch. A Literature Review of Zika Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016; 22(7): 1185–1192.
3. Vivian C Agumadu and Kamleshun Ramphul. Zika virus a review of literature. Cureus.2018; 10(7): 3025.
4. Carlos A, Herrada, Md Alamgir Kabir et al. Advances in Diagnostic Methods for Zika Virus Infection. ASME Digital collections. 2018; 12(4):
5. Enny S.Paixao,Maria Gloria Teixeira, et al. Zika, chikungunya and dengue: the causes and threats of new and re-emerging arboviral diseases. N L M catalogue. 2018; 4;(3) 1530.
6. Zhexing wen, Hongjun Song, et al. How does zika virus cause microcephaly, Genes Dev. 2017;31(9): 849-861.
7. Hercules Sakkas, Petros Bozidis, et al. An update on sexual transmission of zika virus, Pathogens. 2018;7(3): 66.
8. Harbir Singh Arora MD. A to Z of Zika Virus: A Comprehensive Review for Clinicians, Glob. Pediatr. Health2020.
9. Ana-Belen Blazquez and Juan Carlos Saiz. Neurological manifestation of Zika virus infection, World J. Virol. 2016; 12; 5(4): 135–143.
10. Raj K. Singh Kuldeep Dhama, et at. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Zika Virus, a Special Focus on Intervention Approaches against Vector Mosquitoes—Current Updates. Front Microbiol.2018; 9:87.
11. Farshid Noorbakhsh, Kaml Abdolmohammadi, et al. Zika Virus Infection, Basic and Clinical Aspects: A Review Article. Iran. J. Public Health. 2019; 48(1): 20–31.

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[if 424 not_equal=”Regular Issue”] Regular Issue[/if 424] Open Access Article

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International Journal of Nursing Critical Care

ISSN: 2581-6209

Editors Overview

ijncc maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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  1. Lecturer,Department of Community Health Nursing, Holy Family Institute of Nursing Education, Mumbai,Maharashtra,India
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Abstract

nZika virus (ZIKV) is a recently rising relative of the Flaviviridae family and associated to dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIVKV). ZIKV infection was distinguished by mild disease with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, with unprecedented association with Guillain–Barre Syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. Nevertheless, since the end of 2015, a rise in the number of GBS related cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and neonates in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising consequential global public health concerns. ZIKV is spread by the bite of infected female mosquitoes of Aedes species. A substantial illustration of the actual understanding of the effects of ZIKV on heath, clinical manifestation, and diagnosis and treatment options based on modern, alternative and complementary system of medicines regarding the disease will enable the health care organization for drafting and communicating policies and procedures to control the spread of this virus.n

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Keywords: Arthralgia, conjunctivitis, complications, microcephaly, transmissions, zika virus

n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Nursing Critical Care(ijncc)]

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1. Syeda Sidra Kazmi, Waqar Ali, et al. A review on Zika virus outbreak, epidemiology, transmission and infection dynamics. J biol research (Thessalon).2020;27 (5) 2. Anna R Plourde and Evan M. Bloch. A Literature Review of Zika Virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016; 22(7): 1185–1192.
3. Vivian C Agumadu and Kamleshun Ramphul. Zika virus a review of literature. Cureus.2018; 10(7): 3025.
4. Carlos A, Herrada, Md Alamgir Kabir et al. Advances in Diagnostic Methods for Zika Virus Infection. ASME Digital collections. 2018; 12(4):
5. Enny S.Paixao,Maria Gloria Teixeira, et al. Zika, chikungunya and dengue: the causes and threats of new and re-emerging arboviral diseases. N L M catalogue. 2018; 4;(3) 1530.
6. Zhexing wen, Hongjun Song, et al. How does zika virus cause microcephaly, Genes Dev. 2017;31(9): 849-861.
7. Hercules Sakkas, Petros Bozidis, et al. An update on sexual transmission of zika virus, Pathogens. 2018;7(3): 66.
8. Harbir Singh Arora MD. A to Z of Zika Virus: A Comprehensive Review for Clinicians, Glob. Pediatr. Health2020.
9. Ana-Belen Blazquez and Juan Carlos Saiz. Neurological manifestation of Zika virus infection, World J. Virol. 2016; 12; 5(4): 135–143.
10. Raj K. Singh Kuldeep Dhama, et at. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Zika Virus, a Special Focus on Intervention Approaches against Vector Mosquitoes—Current Updates. Front Microbiol.2018; 9:87.
11. Farshid Noorbakhsh, Kaml Abdolmohammadi, et al. Zika Virus Infection, Basic and Clinical Aspects: A Review Article. Iran. J. Public Health. 2019; 48(1): 20–31.

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International Journal of Nursing Critical Care

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[if 344 not_equal=””]ISSN: 2581-6209[/if 344]

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Volume 8
Issue 2
Received May 4, 2022
Accepted May 18, 2022
Published May 30, 2022

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IJNCC

Effect of Music Therapy on Anxiety Among Patients in Intensive Care Unit

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u00a0Awasthi K. Raghavan, Agent Bena Mani, Roy K George,

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nJanuary 10, 2023 at 5:02 am

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nAbstract

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Background: An intensive care unit is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive care to patients with severe or life-threatening illnesses and injuries, which require constant care, close supervision from life support equipment and medication in order to ensure normal bodily functions. Anxiety is common among intensive care unit patients which can lead to various physiological and psychological changes making the patient recovery difficult. Effective management of anxiety is inevitable in health and recovery of critically ill patients. Anxiety is estimated to occur in as many as 70 to 87 percentage of critical care patients. This emotion is an important issue in intensive care settings because of its prevalence, adverse effects, and severity. Anxiety is often treated by means of sedatives and considering its adverse effects on patient health and recovery arises the need for an effective non-pharmacological intervention to treat anxiety. In search of an effective intervention to treat anxiety it was found that music is proven to have a smoothening effect on human mind and in the light of its feasibility, music therapy was chosen for the study. Materials and Methods: An experimental approach with 2 group pre-test-post-test design was used to study a total of 70 patients admitted in intensive care unit. Patients were assigned randomly to experimental and control group, 35 in each group. Anxiety was assessed using a 100-point numerical rating scale. Experimental group was provided with music therapy for 20 minutes and post-test anxiety was assessed after 30 minutes using the same scale in both the groups. Results: Anxiety was present in most of the patients in intensive care unit. About 5.1 percentage of patients had extreme anxiety, 40.8 percentage had severe and moderate anxiety and 10.1 percentage had mild anxiety. In the experimental group the pre-test showed 8.6 percentage of subjects had extreme anxiety, 51.4 percentage had severe anxiety and 40 percentage had moderate anxiety. After the intervention 82.8 percentage of subjects had only mild anxiety, 14.3 percentage had moderate anxiety and there were no subjects with extreme or severe anxiety. In the control group the post-test showed that the anxiety remained almost at the same level as in the pre-test. The mean pre-test anxiety score in the experimental group was 58.57 with Sd = 7.70 which was reduced to 26.27 with Sd = 7.70 in the posttest. In the control group the pre-test value was 53.43 and Sd was 10.83 and in the post-test it was 51.71 with Sd = 10.14. The reduction in the anxiety in experimental group was statistically significant with a p value 0.000 at 0.05 level of significance. There was no association between anxiety of ICU patients and their selected variables. Conclusion: Patients admitted in the intensive care unit had significant anxiety. Music therapy was highly effective in reducing anxiety in critically ill patients. Nurses must promote use of music therapy as it is easily applicable and acceptable to patients in intensive care unit.

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Volume :u00a0u00a08 | Issue :u00a0u00a01 | Received :u00a0u00a0September 7, 2021 | Accepted :u00a0u00a0January 5, 2022 | Published :u00a0u00a0March 5, 2022n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Nursing Critical Care(ijncc)] [/if 424][if 424 equals=”Special Issue”][This article belongs to Special Issue Effect of Music Therapy on Anxiety Among Patients in Intensive Care Unit under section in International Journal of Nursing Critical Care(ijncc)] [/if 424]
Keywords Anxiety, Intensive care unit patients, Intensive care unit, Music preference, Music therapy

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1. American journal of critical care: an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, 2002 January, Critical care nurses’ assessment of patients’ anxiety: reliance on physiological and behavioral parameters, https:// PubMed. ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/11789483/
2. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2016 Aug, Factors associated with anxiety in critically ill patients: A prospective observational cohort study, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27297383/
3. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2013, April-June, A study to assess level of anxiety among ICU patients in a selected hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu. https://www. researchgate.net/publication/249645871
4. Indian Journal of Anesthesia, 2008, Sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation in the intensive care unit, http://medind.nic.in/iad/t08/s1/iadt08s1p620.pdf
5. National Library of Medicine, Clinical pharmacology: advances and applications, USA, 2012, Sedation in the intensive care setting, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23204873/
6. Masters Theses: Grand Valley State University, 2000, The effects of music therapy on anxiety in surgical patients, https:// scholarworks.gvsu.edu/ theses/617
7. ICU management and practice, 2016, September, Music Therapy Has a Role in the ICU, https:// healthmanagement.org/c/ice/ news/music-therapy-has-a-role-in-the-ice
8. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 2015, September, The effect of music on comfort, anxiety and pain in the intensive care unit, https:// www. international journalofcaringsciences.org/docs/9_Ciftsi_original_8_3.pdf
9. Heart & lung: the journal of critical care, U.S.A, 1998, May, Effectiveness of a music therapy intervention on relaxation and anxiety for patients receiving ventilatory assistance, https:// PubMed. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9622403/
10. Nurse media journal of nursing, 2010, Effectiveness of music therapy toward reducing patient’s anxiety in intensive care unit, https:// ejournal.undip.ac.id/ index/ medians/article/view/737

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[if 424 not_equal=”Regular Issue”] Regular Issue[/if 424] Open Access Article

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International Journal of Nursing Critical Care

ISSN: 2581-6209

Editors Overview

ijncc maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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    Awasthi K. Raghavan, Agent Bena Mani, Roy K George

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    [foreach 286] [if 1175 not_equal=””]n t

  1. Student, HOD, Principal & HOD,Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Baby Memorial College of Nursing, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Baby Memorial College of Nursing, Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Baby Memorial College of Nursing,Kerala, Kerala, Kerala,India, India, India
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Abstract

nBackground: An intensive care unit is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive care to patients with severe or life-threatening illnesses and injuries, which require constant care, close supervision from life support equipment and medication in order to ensure normal bodily functions. Anxiety is common among intensive care unit patients which can lead to various physiological and psychological changes making the patient recovery difficult. Effective management of anxiety is inevitable in health and recovery of critically ill patients. Anxiety is estimated to occur in as many as 70 to 87 percentage of critical care patients. This emotion is an important issue in intensive care settings because of its prevalence, adverse effects, and severity. Anxiety is often treated by means of sedatives and considering its adverse effects on patient health and recovery arises the need for an effective non-pharmacological intervention to treat anxiety. In search of an effective intervention to treat anxiety it was found that music is proven to have a smoothening effect on human mind and in the light of its feasibility, music therapy was chosen for the study. Materials and Methods: An experimental approach with 2 group pre-test-post-test design was used to study a total of 70 patients admitted in intensive care unit. Patients were assigned randomly to experimental and control group, 35 in each group. Anxiety was assessed using a 100-point numerical rating scale. Experimental group was provided with music therapy for 20 minutes and post-test anxiety was assessed after 30 minutes using the same scale in both the groups. Results: Anxiety was present in most of the patients in intensive care unit. About 5.1 percentage of patients had extreme anxiety, 40.8 percentage had severe and moderate anxiety and 10.1 percentage had mild anxiety. In the experimental group the pre-test showed 8.6 percentage of subjects had extreme anxiety, 51.4 percentage had severe anxiety and 40 percentage had moderate anxiety. After the intervention 82.8 percentage of subjects had only mild anxiety, 14.3 percentage had moderate anxiety and there were no subjects with extreme or severe anxiety. In the control group the post-test showed that the anxiety remained almost at the same level as in the pre-test. The mean pre-test anxiety score in the experimental group was 58.57 with Sd = 7.70 which was reduced to 26.27 with Sd = 7.70 in the posttest. In the control group the pre-test value was 53.43 and Sd was 10.83 and in the post-test it was 51.71 with Sd = 10.14. The reduction in the anxiety in experimental group was statistically significant with a p value 0.000 at 0.05 level of significance. There was no association between anxiety of ICU patients and their selected variables. Conclusion: Patients admitted in the intensive care unit had significant anxiety. Music therapy was highly effective in reducing anxiety in critically ill patients. Nurses must promote use of music therapy as it is easily applicable and acceptable to patients in intensive care unit.n

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Keywords: Anxiety, Intensive care unit patients, Intensive care unit, Music preference, Music therapy

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References

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1. American journal of critical care: an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, 2002 January, Critical care nurses’ assessment of patients’ anxiety: reliance on physiological and behavioral parameters, https:// PubMed. ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/11789483/
2. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2016 Aug, Factors associated with anxiety in critically ill patients: A prospective observational cohort study, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27297383/
3. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research. 2013, April-June, A study to assess level of anxiety among ICU patients in a selected hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu. https://www. researchgate.net/publication/249645871
4. Indian Journal of Anesthesia, 2008, Sedation, analgesia and muscle relaxation in the intensive care unit, http://medind.nic.in/iad/t08/s1/iadt08s1p620.pdf
5. National Library of Medicine, Clinical pharmacology: advances and applications, USA, 2012, Sedation in the intensive care setting, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23204873/
6. Masters Theses: Grand Valley State University, 2000, The effects of music therapy on anxiety in surgical patients, https:// scholarworks.gvsu.edu/ theses/617
7. ICU management and practice, 2016, September, Music Therapy Has a Role in the ICU, https:// healthmanagement.org/c/ice/ news/music-therapy-has-a-role-in-the-ice
8. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 2015, September, The effect of music on comfort, anxiety and pain in the intensive care unit, https:// www. international journalofcaringsciences.org/docs/9_Ciftsi_original_8_3.pdf
9. Heart & lung: the journal of critical care, U.S.A, 1998, May, Effectiveness of a music therapy intervention on relaxation and anxiety for patients receiving ventilatory assistance, https:// PubMed. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9622403/
10. Nurse media journal of nursing, 2010, Effectiveness of music therapy toward reducing patient’s anxiety in intensive care unit, https:// ejournal.undip.ac.id/ index/ medians/article/view/737

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International Journal of Nursing Critical Care

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[if 344 not_equal=””]ISSN: 2581-6209[/if 344]

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Volume 8
Issue 1
Received September 7, 2021
Accepted January 5, 2022
Published March 5, 2022

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