IJCT

Usage of Fly Ash and Slag as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECCs): A Review

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u00a0S. Naveen1, Govardhan Bhat,

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nJanuary 9, 2023 at 4:45 am

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nAbstract

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Researchers evolved Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) in the nineties, which belong to the family of high-performance fibre-reinforced cementitious composites. ECC is additionally known as bendable concrete as a ductile alternative to conventional concrete. ECC requires a huge amount of supplementary cementitious material (fly ash), contributing to sustainable development. In this study, a review of ECC has been studied with supplementary cementitious materials which include fly ash and slag. ECC has better tensile strength, ductility and durability properties than other kinds of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC). The results are primarily based on the properties of ECC with fly ash and slag. This research work affords an exhaustive overview of ECC with the aid of incorporating fly ash and slag as supplementary cementitious substances. The impact of fly ash fineness, the calcium content of fly ash, fly ash content, and slag on various properties of ECC are taken into consideration. Also studied the effect on the strength of ECC with fly ash at increased temperature.

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Volume :u00a0u00a07 | Issue :u00a0u00a01 | Received :u00a0u00a0March 19, 2021 | Accepted :u00a0u00a0April 22, 2021 | Published :u00a0u00a0June 10, 2021n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)] [/if 424][if 424 equals=”Special Issue”][This article belongs to Special Issue Usage of Fly Ash and Slag as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECCs): A Review under section in International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)] [/if 424]
Keywords ECC, supplementary cementitious materials, fly ash, slag, calcium content fineness, ductility

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1. Mustafa Sahmaran, Gurkan Yildirim, Erdem Tahir K. Self-healing capacity of cementitious composite incorporating different supplementary cementitious materials. Cem Concr Compos. 2013; 35: 89–101.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.08.013
2. Gurkan Yildirum, Ozlem Kaasap Keskin, Suleyman Bahadir Keskin, Mustafa Sahmaran. Review of intrinsic self-healing capacity of engineered cementitious composites: Recovery of transport and mechanical properties. Constr Build Mater. 2015; 101: 10–21. DOI: 10.1016/j.Conbuildmat.2015.10.018.
3. Jiangato Yu, Jianhui Lin, Zhigang Zhang, Li Victor C. Mechanical performance of ECC with high volume fly ash after sub-elevated temperatures. Constr Build Mater. 2015; 99: 82–89. DOI: 10.1016/j. Conbuildmat. 2015.10.018.
4. Li-li Kan, Ruo-Xin Shi, Jin Zhu. Effect of fineness and calcium content of fly ash on the mechanical properties of ECC. Constr Build Mater. 2019; 209: 476–484. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.03.129.
5. Hezhi Liu, Qian Zhang, Chongshi Gu, Huaizhi Su, Victor Li. Self -healing of microcracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites under sulfate and chloride environment. Constr Build Mater. 2017; 153: 948–956. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.07.126
6. Mustafa Sahmaran, Erdogan Ozbay, Yucel Hasan E, Mohamed Lachemi, Li Victor C. Frost resistance and microstructure of Engineered Cementitious Composites: Influence of fly ash and micro poly-vinyl-alcohol fiber. Cem Concr Compos. 2012; 34: 156–165. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2011.10.002
7. Yu Zhu, Yingzi Yang, Yan Yao. Use of slag to improve mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) with high volumes of fly ash. Constr Build Mater. 2012; 36: 1076– 1081. DOI: 1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.031.
8. Kamile Tosun-Felekoglu, Eren Godek, Muhammer Keskinates, Burak Felekoglu. Utilization and selection of proper fly ash in cost-effective green HTPP-ECC design. J Clean Prod. 2017; 149: 557– 568. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.117
9. Rashad Alaa M. An exploratory study on high-volume fly ash concrete incorporating silica fume subjecting to thermal load. J Clean Prod. 2015; 87: 735–744. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.018 10. Paris Jerry M, Roessler Justin G, Ferraro Christopher C, DeFord Harvey D, Townsend Timothy G. A review of waste products utilized as supplements to Portland cement in concrete. J Clean Prod. 2016; 121: 1–18. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclero.2016.02.013.
11. Megat Johari MA, Brooks JJ, Shahid Kabir, Patrice Rivard. Influence of supplementary cementitious materials on engineering properties of high strength concrete. Constr Build Mater. 2011; 25: 2639–2648. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.12.013
12. Yu Zhu, Zhacai Zhang, Yingzi Yang, Yan Yao. Measurement and correlation of ductility and compressive strength for engineered cementitious composites (ECC) produced by binary and ternary systems of binder materials: fly ash, slag, silica fume and cement. Constr Build Mater. 2014; 68: 192–198. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.06.080
13. Tahir Kemal Erdem. Specimen size effect on the residual properties of engineered cementitious composites subjected to high temperatures. Cem Concr Compos. 2014; 45: 1–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2013.09.019
14. Yu Ke-quan, Lu Zhou-dao, Yu Jiangtao. Residual compressive properties of strain-hardening cementitious composite with different curing ages exposed to high temperature. Constr Build Mater. 2015; 98: 146–155. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.08.041.

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[if 424 not_equal=”Regular Issue”] Regular Issue[/if 424] Open Access Article

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International Journal of Concrete Technology

ISSN: 2456-8317

Editors Overview

ijct maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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    By  [foreach 286]n

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    S. Naveen1, Govardhan Bhat

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  1. PhD Scholar, Assistant Professor,Department Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Raipur, Department Civil Engineering National Institute of Technology Raipur,Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh,India, India
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Abstract

nResearchers evolved Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) in the nineties, which belong to the family of high-performance fibre-reinforced cementitious composites. ECC is additionally known as bendable concrete as a ductile alternative to conventional concrete. ECC requires a huge amount of supplementary cementitious material (fly ash), contributing to sustainable development. In this study, a review of ECC has been studied with supplementary cementitious materials which include fly ash and slag. ECC has better tensile strength, ductility and durability properties than other kinds of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC). The results are primarily based on the properties of ECC with fly ash and slag. This research work affords an exhaustive overview of ECC with the aid of incorporating fly ash and slag as supplementary cementitious substances. The impact of fly ash fineness, the calcium content of fly ash, fly ash content, and slag on various properties of ECC are taken into consideration. Also studied the effect on the strength of ECC with fly ash at increased temperature.n

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Keywords: ECC, supplementary cementitious materials, fly ash, slag, calcium content fineness, ductility

n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)]

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References

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1. Mustafa Sahmaran, Gurkan Yildirim, Erdem Tahir K. Self-healing capacity of cementitious composite incorporating different supplementary cementitious materials. Cem Concr Compos. 2013; 35: 89–101.
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2012.08.013
2. Gurkan Yildirum, Ozlem Kaasap Keskin, Suleyman Bahadir Keskin, Mustafa Sahmaran. Review of intrinsic self-healing capacity of engineered cementitious composites: Recovery of transport and mechanical properties. Constr Build Mater. 2015; 101: 10–21. DOI: 10.1016/j.Conbuildmat.2015.10.018.
3. Jiangato Yu, Jianhui Lin, Zhigang Zhang, Li Victor C. Mechanical performance of ECC with high volume fly ash after sub-elevated temperatures. Constr Build Mater. 2015; 99: 82–89. DOI: 10.1016/j. Conbuildmat. 2015.10.018.
4. Li-li Kan, Ruo-Xin Shi, Jin Zhu. Effect of fineness and calcium content of fly ash on the mechanical properties of ECC. Constr Build Mater. 2019; 209: 476–484. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2019.03.129.
5. Hezhi Liu, Qian Zhang, Chongshi Gu, Huaizhi Su, Victor Li. Self -healing of microcracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites under sulfate and chloride environment. Constr Build Mater. 2017; 153: 948–956. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.07.126
6. Mustafa Sahmaran, Erdogan Ozbay, Yucel Hasan E, Mohamed Lachemi, Li Victor C. Frost resistance and microstructure of Engineered Cementitious Composites: Influence of fly ash and micro poly-vinyl-alcohol fiber. Cem Concr Compos. 2012; 34: 156–165. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2011.10.002
7. Yu Zhu, Yingzi Yang, Yan Yao. Use of slag to improve mechanical properties of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) with high volumes of fly ash. Constr Build Mater. 2012; 36: 1076– 1081. DOI: 1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.031.
8. Kamile Tosun-Felekoglu, Eren Godek, Muhammer Keskinates, Burak Felekoglu. Utilization and selection of proper fly ash in cost-effective green HTPP-ECC design. J Clean Prod. 2017; 149: 557– 568. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.02.117
9. Rashad Alaa M. An exploratory study on high-volume fly ash concrete incorporating silica fume subjecting to thermal load. J Clean Prod. 2015; 87: 735–744. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.018 10. Paris Jerry M, Roessler Justin G, Ferraro Christopher C, DeFord Harvey D, Townsend Timothy G. A review of waste products utilized as supplements to Portland cement in concrete. J Clean Prod. 2016; 121: 1–18. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclero.2016.02.013.
11. Megat Johari MA, Brooks JJ, Shahid Kabir, Patrice Rivard. Influence of supplementary cementitious materials on engineering properties of high strength concrete. Constr Build Mater. 2011; 25: 2639–2648. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.12.013
12. Yu Zhu, Zhacai Zhang, Yingzi Yang, Yan Yao. Measurement and correlation of ductility and compressive strength for engineered cementitious composites (ECC) produced by binary and ternary systems of binder materials: fly ash, slag, silica fume and cement. Constr Build Mater. 2014; 68: 192–198. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.06.080
13. Tahir Kemal Erdem. Specimen size effect on the residual properties of engineered cementitious composites subjected to high temperatures. Cem Concr Compos. 2014; 45: 1–8. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2013.09.019
14. Yu Ke-quan, Lu Zhou-dao, Yu Jiangtao. Residual compressive properties of strain-hardening cementitious composite with different curing ages exposed to high temperature. Constr Build Mater. 2015; 98: 146–155. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.08.041.

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Regular Issue Open Access Article

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International Journal of Concrete Technology

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[if 344 not_equal=””]ISSN: 2456-8317[/if 344]

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Volume 7
Issue 1
Received March 19, 2021
Accepted April 22, 2021
Published June 10, 2021

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Read More
IJCT

Effect of Fly Ash on Compressive Strength of Mortar and Brick Aggregate Concrete

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u00a0Abdur R. Kaoser, Khan M. Amanat, Munaz A. Noor,

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nJanuary 9, 2023 at 5:54 am

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nAbstract

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This research work presents the influence of fly ash on compressive strength of mortar and brick aggregate concrete. A lot of tests were done about strength of fly ash concrete all over the world. In those experiments, stone chips were generally used as coarse aggregate. In this experiment, locally available materials such as burnt clay brick chips as coarse aggregate, sand and fly ash available in Bangladesh (Indian fly ash) were used. Compressive strength of mortar and concrete were tested as per ASTM C-109 and ASTM C39 respectively. Here nine different types of both mortar and concrete specimens were prepared based on w/c ratio and percent of fly ash replacement. It is noted that generally fly ash mortar and concrete gain strength slowly at early ages (up to 28 days) but they gain strength almost equal to plain mortar and concrete at later age (at 90 days). As fly ash is low cost material and fly ash mortar and concrete attain almost equal strength to plain mortar and concrete at later age, fly ash is to be used in mortar and concrete to reduce the construction cost.

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Volume :u00a0u00a07 | Issue :u00a0u00a01 | Received :u00a0u00a0January 20, 2021 | Accepted :u00a0u00a0February 20, 2021 | Published :u00a0u00a0June 10, 2021n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)] [/if 424][if 424 equals=”Special Issue”][This article belongs to Special Issue Effect of Fly Ash on Compressive Strength of Mortar and Brick Aggregate Concrete under section in International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)] [/if 424]
Keywords Compressive strength, OPC, brick aggregate, fly ash, w/c ratio, hydration

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1. ACI 116R. Cement and Concrete Terminology. 1985.
2. ACI Committee 318. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete Construction and Commentary (ACI 318-89/ACI 318R-89). Detroit: American Concrete Institute; 1989; 347.
3. ASTM C39-96. Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.
4. ASTM C109-99. Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars.
Effect of Fly Ash on Compressive Strength of Mortar and Brick Aggregate Concrete Kaoser et al.
© JournalsPub 2021. All Rights Reserved 22
5. ASTM C150-98. Standard Specification for Portland Cement.
6. ASTM C191-99. Standard Test Method for Time of Setting of Hydraulic Cement by Vicat Needle.
7. ASTM C618-98. Standard Specification for Coal, Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Concrete.
8. Arezoumandi MA, Volz JS, Myers JJ. Shear Behavior of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete versus Conventional Concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering © ASCE (J Mater Civ Eng). 2013; 25(10): 1506–1513.
9. Ben-Bassat M, Nixon PJ, Hard Castle J. The Effect of Differences in Composition of Portland Cement on Properties of Hardened Concrete. Mag Concr Res. 1990; 42(151): 59–66.
10. Bhanumathidas N, Kalidas N. Fly Ash for Sustainable Development. Institute for Solid Waste Research and Ecological Balance. Chennai: Ark Communication; 2002.
11. Bouzoubaa N, Fournier B, Malhotra VM, Golden DM. Mechanical Properties and Durability of Concrete Made with High Volume Fly Ash Blended Cement Produced in Cement Plant. ACI Mater J. 2002; 99(6).
12. Chatterjee AK. Indian Fly Ashes: Their Characteristics and Potential for Mechanochemical Acivation for Enhanced Usability. J Mater Civ Eng. 2011 Jun; 23(6): 783–788.
13. Choi SJ, Lee SS, Monteiro PJM. Effect of Fly Ash Fineness on Temperature Rise, Setting, and Strength Development of Mortar. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering © ASCE (J Mater Civ Eng). 2012; 24(5): 499–505.
14. Dhir RK, Hewlett PC, Chan YN. Near-Surface Characteristics of Concrete: Assessment and Development of In-Situ Test Methods. Mag Concr Res, London. 1987; 39(141): 183–195.
15. Dikeou JT. Effect of Fly Ash on Concrete. Research Report No. 23, USBR, Denver. 1985. 16. Dodson VH. Effect of Fly Ash on the Setting of Concrete – Chemical or Physical. Proceedings, Symposium N, Material Research Society, Boston. 1981; 166–171.
17. Dunstan MRH. Long Term Strength Development of High Fly Ash Cement Concrete. Institute of Civil Engineers (London), Part1, V.74. 1983; 495–513.
18. Dunstan ER. Fly Ash and Fly Ash Concrete. Denver, Colorado: Bureau of Reclamation; 1984.
19. Hwang K, Noguchi T, Tomosawa F. Prediction model of compressive strength development of fly ash concrete. Cem Concr Res. 2004; 34(12): 2269–2276.
20. Jadhav HS, Chavarekar RR. Role of Fly Ash and Silica Fume on Compressive Strength Characteristics of High Performance Concrete. Int J Struct Civil Eng Res. 2013 Feb; 2(1): 32–39.
21. Jiang LH. Studies on Hydration, Microstructure, and Mechanism of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. Ph.D. thesis. Hohai University, Nanjing, China. 1998.
22. Junaid UI, Zulufqar BR. Partial Replacement of Natural Fine Aggregate with Fly Ash and Its Compressive Strength. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET). 2018 Sep; 9(9): 32–36.
23. Madurwar KV, Burile AN, Sorte AM (Priyadarshini Bhagwati College of Engineering, Nagpur-09, India). Compressive Strength of Cement & Fly Ash Mortar: A Case Study. Proc of SIDM. 2019.
24. Marthong C. Agrawal TP (Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, 221005). Effect of Fly Ash Additive on Concrete Properties. IJERA. 2012; 2(4): 1986–1991.
25. Papadakis VG. Effect of Fly Ash on Portland Cement Systems Part-I: Low Calcium Fly Ash. Cem Concr Res. 1999; 29(11): 1727–1736.
26. Parvati VK, Prakash KB. Feasibility Study of Fly Ash as a Replacement for Fine Aggregate in Concrete and its Behavior under Sustained Elevated Temperature. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research (IJSER). 2013; 4(5): 87–90.
27. Pech RB, Hanson WE, Thornburn TH. Foundation Engineering. 2nd Edn. Wiley; 1974.
28. Rafat S. Effect of Fine Aggregate Replacement with Class F Fly Ash on the Mechanical Properties of Concrete. Cem Concr Res. 2003; 33(4): 539–547.
29. Ramachandan VS, Feldman RF, Beaudoin JJ. Concrete Science. London: Heyden and Son Ltd.; 1981.
30. Rebeiz KS, Serhal SP, Craft AP. Properties of Polymer Concrete using Fly Ash. J Mater Eng. 2004; 16(1): 15–19.
International Journal of Concrete Technology
Volume 7, Issue 1
ISSN: 2456-8317
© JournalsPub 2021. All Rights Reserved 23
31. Robert VT, Deepa GN. Fly Ash as a Fine Aggregate Replacement in Concrete Building Blocks. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART). 2015; 1(2): 47–51.
32. Sagara A, Tjondro JA, Putri DK (Department of Civil Engineering, Parahyangan Catholic University, Ciumbuleuit 94, Bandung 40140, Indonesia). Experimental Study of Fly Ash Density Effect to the Mortar Compressive Strength with Recycled Fine Aggregate. Procedia Eng. 2017; 171: 620–626.
33. Saha AK (Department of Civil Engineering, Curtin University, Perth WA 6102, Australia). Effect of class F fly ash on the durability properties of concrete. Sustain Environ Res. 2018; 28(1): 25–31.
34. Sama T, Lalwani D, Shukla A, Sofi A. Effect of Strength of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly ash and addition of Steel Fibres. Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology (JCEET). 2014; 1(1): 5–9.
35. Sengul O, Tasdemir MA. Compressive Strength and Rapid Chloride Permeability of Concretes with Ground Fly Ash and Slag. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering © ASCE (J Mater Civ Eng). 2009; 21(9): 494–501.
36. Siddamreddy AKR, Chandrasekhar KR. Effect of Fly Ash on Strength and Durability Parameters of Concrete. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2013; 4(5): 1398–1370.
37. Tikalsky PJ, Carrasquillo PM, Carrasquillo RL. Strength and Durability Considerations Affecting Mix Proportioning of Concrete Containing Fly Ash. ACI Mater J. 1988; 85(6): 505–511.
38. Uma M, Shameem Banu S. Strength and Durability Studies on Concrete with Fly Ash and Artificial Sand. Int J Eng Res Gen Sci. 2015 Feb; 3(1): 138–146.
39. Vitruvius P. The Ten Books of Architecture. Translated from the Latin by Morgan MJ. New York: Dover Publications; 1960.
40. Wankhede PR, Fulari VA (IBSS College of Engineering, Amravati). Effect of Fly ASH on Properties of Concrete. IJETAE. 2014; 4(7): 284–289.

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[if 424 not_equal=”Regular Issue”] Regular Issue[/if 424] Open Access Article

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International Journal of Concrete Technology

ISSN: 2456-8317

Editors Overview

ijct maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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    Abdur R. Kaoser, Khan M. Amanat, Munaz A. Noor

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  1. Ph.D. Student, Professor,Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology,Dhaka, Dhaka,Bangladesh, Bangladesh
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Abstract

nThis research work presents the influence of fly ash on compressive strength of mortar and brick aggregate concrete. A lot of tests were done about strength of fly ash concrete all over the world. In those experiments, stone chips were generally used as coarse aggregate. In this experiment, locally available materials such as burnt clay brick chips as coarse aggregate, sand and fly ash available in Bangladesh (Indian fly ash) were used. Compressive strength of mortar and concrete were tested as per ASTM C-109 and ASTM C39 respectively. Here nine different types of both mortar and concrete specimens were prepared based on w/c ratio and percent of fly ash replacement. It is noted that generally fly ash mortar and concrete gain strength slowly at early ages (up to 28 days) but they gain strength almost equal to plain mortar and concrete at later age (at 90 days). As fly ash is low cost material and fly ash mortar and concrete attain almost equal strength to plain mortar and concrete at later age, fly ash is to be used in mortar and concrete to reduce the construction cost.n

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Keywords: Compressive strength, OPC, brick aggregate, fly ash, w/c ratio, hydration

n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)]

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References

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1. ACI 116R. Cement and Concrete Terminology. 1985.
2. ACI Committee 318. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete Construction and Commentary (ACI 318-89/ACI 318R-89). Detroit: American Concrete Institute; 1989; 347.
3. ASTM C39-96. Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.
4. ASTM C109-99. Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars.
Effect of Fly Ash on Compressive Strength of Mortar and Brick Aggregate Concrete Kaoser et al.
© JournalsPub 2021. All Rights Reserved 22
5. ASTM C150-98. Standard Specification for Portland Cement.
6. ASTM C191-99. Standard Test Method for Time of Setting of Hydraulic Cement by Vicat Needle.
7. ASTM C618-98. Standard Specification for Coal, Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Mineral Admixture in Concrete.
8. Arezoumandi MA, Volz JS, Myers JJ. Shear Behavior of High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete versus Conventional Concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering © ASCE (J Mater Civ Eng). 2013; 25(10): 1506–1513.
9. Ben-Bassat M, Nixon PJ, Hard Castle J. The Effect of Differences in Composition of Portland Cement on Properties of Hardened Concrete. Mag Concr Res. 1990; 42(151): 59–66.
10. Bhanumathidas N, Kalidas N. Fly Ash for Sustainable Development. Institute for Solid Waste Research and Ecological Balance. Chennai: Ark Communication; 2002.
11. Bouzoubaa N, Fournier B, Malhotra VM, Golden DM. Mechanical Properties and Durability of Concrete Made with High Volume Fly Ash Blended Cement Produced in Cement Plant. ACI Mater J. 2002; 99(6).
12. Chatterjee AK. Indian Fly Ashes: Their Characteristics and Potential for Mechanochemical Acivation for Enhanced Usability. J Mater Civ Eng. 2011 Jun; 23(6): 783–788.
13. Choi SJ, Lee SS, Monteiro PJM. Effect of Fly Ash Fineness on Temperature Rise, Setting, and Strength Development of Mortar. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering © ASCE (J Mater Civ Eng). 2012; 24(5): 499–505.
14. Dhir RK, Hewlett PC, Chan YN. Near-Surface Characteristics of Concrete: Assessment and Development of In-Situ Test Methods. Mag Concr Res, London. 1987; 39(141): 183–195.
15. Dikeou JT. Effect of Fly Ash on Concrete. Research Report No. 23, USBR, Denver. 1985. 16. Dodson VH. Effect of Fly Ash on the Setting of Concrete – Chemical or Physical. Proceedings, Symposium N, Material Research Society, Boston. 1981; 166–171.
17. Dunstan MRH. Long Term Strength Development of High Fly Ash Cement Concrete. Institute of Civil Engineers (London), Part1, V.74. 1983; 495–513.
18. Dunstan ER. Fly Ash and Fly Ash Concrete. Denver, Colorado: Bureau of Reclamation; 1984.
19. Hwang K, Noguchi T, Tomosawa F. Prediction model of compressive strength development of fly ash concrete. Cem Concr Res. 2004; 34(12): 2269–2276.
20. Jadhav HS, Chavarekar RR. Role of Fly Ash and Silica Fume on Compressive Strength Characteristics of High Performance Concrete. Int J Struct Civil Eng Res. 2013 Feb; 2(1): 32–39.
21. Jiang LH. Studies on Hydration, Microstructure, and Mechanism of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete. Ph.D. thesis. Hohai University, Nanjing, China. 1998.
22. Junaid UI, Zulufqar BR. Partial Replacement of Natural Fine Aggregate with Fly Ash and Its Compressive Strength. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET). 2018 Sep; 9(9): 32–36.
23. Madurwar KV, Burile AN, Sorte AM (Priyadarshini Bhagwati College of Engineering, Nagpur-09, India). Compressive Strength of Cement & Fly Ash Mortar: A Case Study. Proc of SIDM. 2019.
24. Marthong C. Agrawal TP (Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India, 221005). Effect of Fly Ash Additive on Concrete Properties. IJERA. 2012; 2(4): 1986–1991.
25. Papadakis VG. Effect of Fly Ash on Portland Cement Systems Part-I: Low Calcium Fly Ash. Cem Concr Res. 1999; 29(11): 1727–1736.
26. Parvati VK, Prakash KB. Feasibility Study of Fly Ash as a Replacement for Fine Aggregate in Concrete and its Behavior under Sustained Elevated Temperature. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research (IJSER). 2013; 4(5): 87–90.
27. Pech RB, Hanson WE, Thornburn TH. Foundation Engineering. 2nd Edn. Wiley; 1974.
28. Rafat S. Effect of Fine Aggregate Replacement with Class F Fly Ash on the Mechanical Properties of Concrete. Cem Concr Res. 2003; 33(4): 539–547.
29. Ramachandan VS, Feldman RF, Beaudoin JJ. Concrete Science. London: Heyden and Son Ltd.; 1981.
30. Rebeiz KS, Serhal SP, Craft AP. Properties of Polymer Concrete using Fly Ash. J Mater Eng. 2004; 16(1): 15–19.
International Journal of Concrete Technology
Volume 7, Issue 1
ISSN: 2456-8317
© JournalsPub 2021. All Rights Reserved 23
31. Robert VT, Deepa GN. Fly Ash as a Fine Aggregate Replacement in Concrete Building Blocks. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology (IJEART). 2015; 1(2): 47–51.
32. Sagara A, Tjondro JA, Putri DK (Department of Civil Engineering, Parahyangan Catholic University, Ciumbuleuit 94, Bandung 40140, Indonesia). Experimental Study of Fly Ash Density Effect to the Mortar Compressive Strength with Recycled Fine Aggregate. Procedia Eng. 2017; 171: 620–626.
33. Saha AK (Department of Civil Engineering, Curtin University, Perth WA 6102, Australia). Effect of class F fly ash on the durability properties of concrete. Sustain Environ Res. 2018; 28(1): 25–31.
34. Sama T, Lalwani D, Shukla A, Sofi A. Effect of Strength of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement with Fly ash and addition of Steel Fibres. Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology (JCEET). 2014; 1(1): 5–9.
35. Sengul O, Tasdemir MA. Compressive Strength and Rapid Chloride Permeability of Concretes with Ground Fly Ash and Slag. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering © ASCE (J Mater Civ Eng). 2009; 21(9): 494–501.
36. Siddamreddy AKR, Chandrasekhar KR. Effect of Fly Ash on Strength and Durability Parameters of Concrete. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 2013; 4(5): 1398–1370.
37. Tikalsky PJ, Carrasquillo PM, Carrasquillo RL. Strength and Durability Considerations Affecting Mix Proportioning of Concrete Containing Fly Ash. ACI Mater J. 1988; 85(6): 505–511.
38. Uma M, Shameem Banu S. Strength and Durability Studies on Concrete with Fly Ash and Artificial Sand. Int J Eng Res Gen Sci. 2015 Feb; 3(1): 138–146.
39. Vitruvius P. The Ten Books of Architecture. Translated from the Latin by Morgan MJ. New York: Dover Publications; 1960.
40. Wankhede PR, Fulari VA (IBSS College of Engineering, Amravati). Effect of Fly ASH on Properties of Concrete. IJETAE. 2014; 4(7): 284–289.

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Volume 7
Issue 1
Received January 20, 2021
Accepted February 20, 2021
Published June 10, 2021

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IJCT

Evaluation of the Resistance of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate with Steel Slag and Cement with Bentonite Powder

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Year : May 31, 2022 | Volume : 08 | Issue : 01 | Page : 21-29

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Uday N. Gawai, S.P. Nirkhe
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    1. Student, Assistant Professor,Department of Civil Engineering, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management Studies, Aurangabad, Department of Civil Engineering, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management Studies, Aurangabad,Maharashtra, Maharashtra,India, India
    2. n [/if 1175][/foreach]

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    Abstract

    n According to the World Health Organization, concrete is the third most consumed material by humans after food and water. Concrete consists of cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and water. In the production of cement, carbon dioxide is released into the environment, which becomes a big problem for environmental protection. Therefore, there is a need to modify the cement with some natural materials with pozzolanic properties. The aggregates, which are extracted from natural rocks and riverbeds, are used mined, it is important to look at alternatives to aggregates in the future. Compressive strength tests, split tensile strength tests after 3, 7 and 28 days were carried out and the flexural strength of the prism was determined, as well as the optimum content of bentonite, with different proportions of bentonite and 60% iron and steel slag replacing the weight of cement and coarse aggregate for a mix of M30 class concrete. It has the problem of disposal as waste and is of ecological interest. Steel slag is an industrial by-product of the steel industry. It is a non-metallic ceramic material formed by the reaction of fluxes such as calcium oxide with the non-metallic inorganic components present in steel scrap. The use of steel slag reduces the need for natural rock as a building material and thus protects our natural rock resources as much as possible. The recovery and recycling of recovered by-products and waste materials have economic and environmental reasons led to a rapid development of slag recycling. This way of using a waste material can solve problems of aggregate shortage at various construction sites and reduce environmental problems associated with aggregate mining. and steel slag, and it was found that there is more room for future research on bentonite dust and steel slag in the future. For our experiment, we need to study the strength of concrete by partially replacing cement with bentonite powder and C. with steel slag. We will try to substitute 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% bentonite powder and 60% steel slag. Tests such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength are examined, although these are higher values compared to conventional concrete.n

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    Keywords: Induction furnace slag, super plasticizer, compressive strength, cleavage strength, flexible power, billing test

    n [if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)]n

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    How to cite this article:n Uday N. Gawai, S.P. Nirkhe Evaluation of the Resistance of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate with Steel Slag and Cement with Bentonite Powder ijct May 31, 2022; 08:21-29

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    How to cite this URL: Uday N. Gawai, S.P. Nirkhe Evaluation of the Resistance of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate with Steel Slag and Cement with Bentonite Powder ijct May 31, 2022n {cited May 31, 2022};08:21-29. Available from: https://journals.stmjournals.com/ijct/article=May 31, 2022/view=90402/

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    1. Karthikeyan M, Ramachandran PR, Nandhini A, Vinodha R. Study on the partial replacement of fine aggregate using induction furnace slag. Am J Eng Res. 2008;4:1–5.
    2. Santoshkumar P. Effect of bentonite on the Rheological of superplasticizer behavior of cement grout in presence. Int J Civ Environ Eng. 2014.
    3. Surya MC, Krishna A, Paul B. Study on concrete using steel slag as coarse structural, construction and architectural engineering. 2019;8(11).
    4. Aggregate replacement and Eco sand as Fine Aggregate replacement. IJREAT Int J Res Eng Adv Technol. June-July 2013;1(3).
    5. Akbar J, Alam B, Ashraf M, Afzal S, Ahmad A, Shahzada K. Usability of sand-bentonite-cement mixture in the construction of impermeable layer. Sci Res Essays. 2017;6(21):4492–503, 30.
    6. Lam C, Jefferis SA, Martin CM. Effects of polymer and bentonite support fluids on concrete–sand interface shear strength. Géotechnique. 2014;64(1):28–39. doi: 10.1680/geot.13.P.012.
    7. Nadeem M, Pofale A. Experimental investigation of using slag as an alternative to normal aggregates (coarse and fine) in concrete. Int J Civ Struct Eng. 2012;3(1):117–27.
    8. Devi SV, Gnanavel BK, Murthi P. Utilization of industrial waste slag as aggregate in concrete applications by adopting Taguchi’s, approach for optimization. India Open Journal of Civil Engineering. 2012;2:96–105.
    9. Alexander MG, Beushausen H-D, Dehn F, Moyo P. (editors). Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting III: 3rd International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting, ICCRRR-3, 3–5 September 2012, Cape Town, South Africa. CRC Press.2012. pp.504–505. doi:10.1201/b12750225.
    10. Ravikumar H, Dattatreya JK, Shivananda KP. Study on strength properties of concrete by partially replacement of sand by steel slag. Int J Eng Technol Sci. October 2014;1(6).
    11. Bezuijen A, Di Emidio G, Verastegui-Flores RD. Hydraulic Conductivity and Small-Strain stiffness of a Cement-bentonite sample exposed to sulphates. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris 2013. pp. 977–980.
    12. IS10262:2009. Ordinary concrete mix design guidelines. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards; 2009.
    13. IS456:2000. Plain and reinforced concrete. New Delhi: Bureau of Indian Standards; 2000.

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    Volume 08
    Issue 01
    Received May 16, 2022
    Accepted May 24, 2022
    Published May 31, 2022

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    nn function myFunction2() {n var x = document.getElementById(“browsefigure”);n if (x.style.display === “block”) {n x.style.display = “none”;n }n else { x.style.display = “Block”; }n }n document.querySelector(“.prevBtn”).addEventListener(“click”, () => {n changeSlides(-1);n });n document.querySelector(“.nextBtn”).addEventListener(“click”, () => {n changeSlides(1);n });n var slideIndex = 1;n showSlides(slideIndex);n function changeSlides(n) {n showSlides((slideIndex += n));n }n function currentSlide(n) {n showSlides((slideIndex = n));n }n function showSlides(n) {n var i;n var slides = document.getElementsByClassName(“Slide”);n var dots = document.getElementsByClassName(“Navdot”);n if (n > slides.length) { slideIndex = 1; }n if (n (item.style.display = “none”));n Array.from(dots).forEach(n item => (item.className = item.className.replace(” selected”, “”))n );n slides[slideIndex – 1].style.display = “block”;n dots[slideIndex – 1].className += ” selected”;n }nnn function myfun() {n x = document.getElementById(“editor”);n y = document.getElementById(“down”);n z = document.getElementById(“up”);n if (x.style.display == “none”) {n x.style.display = “block”;n }n else {n x.style.display = “none”;n }n if (y.style.display == “none”) {n y.style.display = “block”;n }n else {n y.style.display = “none”;n }n if (z.style.display == “none”) {n z.style.display = “block”;n }n else {n z.style.display = “none”;n }n }n function myfun2() {n x = document.getElementById(“reviewer”);n y = document.getElementById(“down2”);n z = document.getElementById(“up2”);n if (x.style.display == “none”) {n x.style.display = “block”;n }n else {n x.style.display = “none”;n }n if (y.style.display == “none”) {n y.style.display = “block”;n }n else {n y.style.display = “none”;n }n if (z.style.display == “none”) {n z.style.display = “block”;n }n else {n z.style.display = “none”;n }n }n”}]

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    IJCT

    An Investigation on Aggregate Distribution in Concrete

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    u00a0Hasan Dilbas,

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    nJanuary 9, 2023 at 4:52 am

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    nAbstract

    n

    Falling behavior is generally studied by mathematicians. The first study is conducted by Comte de Buffon with name “Falling needles experiment” and is widely known. Buffon researched the falling needle behavior finding the fall of needles in relation with Pi. However, although aggregates are fallen to the mould in cement paste, falling behaviour of concrete is rarely studied considering the statistical parameters of the fall. Accordingly, an experimental study is conducted to research the falling behavior of the aggregate and its distribution in cementitious composite “concrete”. A conventional concrete design according to TS 802 is considered, and many cylindrical concrete specimens are produced in the laboratory. Then, a method is improved to determine the aggregate location on a surface of sliced concrete face and coordinates of the maximum size aggregates are determined. As a result, the falling behavior of the aggregates in concrete is found in relation with Pi as similar as falling needles. Pi is calculated as “3.139534884…” with a very small error while Pi is “3.141592654…”. In addition, it is found that mould edges cause a wall effect decreasing aggregate concentration near the edges. When gone from the edge to “a region” of concrete -it is named as concrete core in this paper-, the aggregate concentration increases.

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    Volume :u00a0u00a07 | Issue :u00a0u00a02 | Received :u00a0u00a0September 21, 2021 | Accepted :u00a0u00a0October 10, 2021 | Published :u00a0u00a0November 27, 2021n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)] [/if 424][if 424 equals=”Special Issue”][This article belongs to Special Issue An Investigation on Aggregate Distribution in Concrete under section in International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)] [/if 424]
    Keywords Falling behavior, distribution of aggregate, concrete core, wall effect.

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    References

    n[if 1104 equals=””]n

    1. Badger, L.: Lazzarini’s lucky approximation of Pi. Mathematics Magazine 67, 83-91, 1994.
    2. McCreary, J., Allen, M.: Various estimations of π as demonstrations of the monte Carlo method. Department of Mathematics Technical Report No. 2001-4. Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505, 2001.
    3. Solomon, H.: Geometric Probability – Buffon Needle Problem, Extensions, and Estimation of Pi, pp. 1-24, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1978.
    4. Diaconis, P.: Buffon’s Needle Problem with a Long Needle. J. Appl. Prob. 13, 614-618, 1976.
    5. Dörrie, H.: 100 Great Problems of Elementary Mathematics: Their History and Solutions-Buffon’s Needle Problem. pp. 73-77. New York, Dover 1965.
    6. Mantel, L.: An Extension of the Buffon Needle Problem. Ann. Math. Stat. 24, 674-677, 1953.
    7. Schuster, E. F.: Buffon’s Needle Experiment. Amer. Math. Monthly 81, 26-29, 1974.
    8. Kraitchik, M.: Mathematical Recreations-The Needle Problem, New York, W. W. Norton, pp:132-140, 1942.
    9. Wegert, E., Trefethen, L. N.: From the Buffon Needle Problem to the Kreiss Matrix Theorem. Amer. Math. Monthly 101, 132-139, 1994.
    10. Abed, M., Nemes, R., Tayeh, B.A.: Properties of self-compacting high-strength concrete containing multiple use of recycled aggregate. J. King Saud Univ.-Eng. Sci. 32, 108-114, 2018.
    11. Zheng, J.J., Li, C.Q., Jones, M.R.: Aggregate distribution in concrete with wall effect. Magazine of Concrete Research 55, 257-265, 2003.
    12. TS EN 197-1. Cement-Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. Turkish Institute of Standards, Yucetepe, Ankara, Turkey, 2012.
    13. TS 706 EN 12620. Aggregates for concrete. Turkish Institute of Standards, Yucetepe, Ankara, Turkey, 2003.
    14. TS EN 206-1. Concrete-Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity. Turkish Institute of Standards, Yucetepe, Ankara, Turkey, 2002.
    15. Erdoğan, T.Y., Beton, METU Press, Ankara, Turkey, 2007.
    16. Kocatürk, A.N., Haberveren, S., Altıntepe, A., Bayramov, F., Ağar, A.Ş., Taşdemir, M.A.: Agrega konsantrasyonunun betonun aşınma direncine etkisi. In: 5. Ulusal Beton Kongresi, pp.535-544, Istanbul, Turkey, 2003.

    nn[/if 1104] [if 1104 not_equal=””]n

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    1. [if 1106 equals=””], [/if 1106][if 1106 not_equal=””], [/if 1106]
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    n[/if 1114]

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    [if 424 not_equal=”Regular Issue”] Regular Issue[/if 424] Open Access Article

    n

    International Journal of Concrete Technology

    ISSN: 2456-8317

    Editors Overview

    ijct maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

    n

    “},{“box”:4,”content”:”

    n“},{“box”:1,”content”:”

      By  [foreach 286]n

    1. n

      Hasan Dilbas

      n

    2. [/foreach]

    n

      [foreach 286] [if 1175 not_equal=””]n t

    1. Faculty,Department of Civil Engineering, Van Yuzuncu Yil University,Van,Turkey
    2. n[/if 1175][/foreach]

    n

    n

    n

    n

    n

    Abstract

    nFalling behavior is generally studied by mathematicians. The first study is conducted by Comte de Buffon with name “Falling needles experiment” and is widely known. Buffon researched the falling needle behavior finding the fall of needles in relation with Pi. However, although aggregates are fallen to the mould in cement paste, falling behaviour of concrete is rarely studied considering the statistical parameters of the fall. Accordingly, an experimental study is conducted to research the falling behavior of the aggregate and its distribution in cementitious composite “concrete”. A conventional concrete design according to TS 802 is considered, and many cylindrical concrete specimens are produced in the laboratory. Then, a method is improved to determine the aggregate location on a surface of sliced concrete face and coordinates of the maximum size aggregates are determined. As a result, the falling behavior of the aggregates in concrete is found in relation with Pi as similar as falling needles. Pi is calculated as “3.139534884…” with a very small error while Pi is “3.141592654…”. In addition, it is found that mould edges cause a wall effect decreasing aggregate concentration near the edges. When gone from the edge to “a region” of concrete -it is named as concrete core in this paper-, the aggregate concentration increases.n

    n

    n

    Keywords: Falling behavior, distribution of aggregate, concrete core, wall effect.

    n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)]

    n[/if 424][if 424 equals=”Special Issue”][This article belongs to Special Issue under section in International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)] [/if 424]

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    n

    References

    n[if 1104 equals=””]

    1. Badger, L.: Lazzarini’s lucky approximation of Pi. Mathematics Magazine 67, 83-91, 1994.
    2. McCreary, J., Allen, M.: Various estimations of π as demonstrations of the monte Carlo method. Department of Mathematics Technical Report No. 2001-4. Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505, 2001.
    3. Solomon, H.: Geometric Probability – Buffon Needle Problem, Extensions, and Estimation of Pi, pp. 1-24, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1978.
    4. Diaconis, P.: Buffon’s Needle Problem with a Long Needle. J. Appl. Prob. 13, 614-618, 1976.
    5. Dörrie, H.: 100 Great Problems of Elementary Mathematics: Their History and Solutions-Buffon’s Needle Problem. pp. 73-77. New York, Dover 1965.
    6. Mantel, L.: An Extension of the Buffon Needle Problem. Ann. Math. Stat. 24, 674-677, 1953.
    7. Schuster, E. F.: Buffon’s Needle Experiment. Amer. Math. Monthly 81, 26-29, 1974.
    8. Kraitchik, M.: Mathematical Recreations-The Needle Problem, New York, W. W. Norton, pp:132-140, 1942.
    9. Wegert, E., Trefethen, L. N.: From the Buffon Needle Problem to the Kreiss Matrix Theorem. Amer. Math. Monthly 101, 132-139, 1994.
    10. Abed, M., Nemes, R., Tayeh, B.A.: Properties of self-compacting high-strength concrete containing multiple use of recycled aggregate. J. King Saud Univ.-Eng. Sci. 32, 108-114, 2018.
    11. Zheng, J.J., Li, C.Q., Jones, M.R.: Aggregate distribution in concrete with wall effect. Magazine of Concrete Research 55, 257-265, 2003.
    12. TS EN 197-1. Cement-Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements. Turkish Institute of Standards, Yucetepe, Ankara, Turkey, 2012.
    13. TS 706 EN 12620. Aggregates for concrete. Turkish Institute of Standards, Yucetepe, Ankara, Turkey, 2003.
    14. TS EN 206-1. Concrete-Part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity. Turkish Institute of Standards, Yucetepe, Ankara, Turkey, 2002.
    15. Erdoğan, T.Y., Beton, METU Press, Ankara, Turkey, 2007.
    16. Kocatürk, A.N., Haberveren, S., Altıntepe, A., Bayramov, F., Ağar, A.Ş., Taşdemir, M.A.: Agrega konsantrasyonunun betonun aşınma direncine etkisi. In: 5. Ulusal Beton Kongresi, pp.535-544, Istanbul, Turkey, 2003.

    n[/if 1104][if 1104 not_equal=””]n

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    International Journal of Concrete Technology

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    [if 344 not_equal=””]ISSN: 2456-8317[/if 344]

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    Volume 7
    Issue 2
    Received September 21, 2021
    Accepted October 10, 2021
    Published November 27, 2021

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    IJCT

    Impact of Additives on the Split Tensile Strength of Roller Compacted Concrete

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    By [foreach 286]u00a0

    u00a0Saad Issa Sarsam,

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    nJanuary 9, 2023 at 5:19 am

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    nAbstract

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    Additives are implemented as partial replacement of Portland cement in concrete to enhance the required physical properties. In the present investigation, roller compacted concrete slab samples were prepared using gap and dense aggregate gradation. Three percentages of Portland cement were adopted, (16, 12, and 10) % by weight of aggregates. Three types of additives, (hydrated lime, fly ash, and fumed silica) were implemented as partial substitute of Portland cement. Core specimens have been obtained from the prepared slab samples and tested for indirect tensile strength. It was observed that dense gradation exhibits higher tensile strength than gap gradation by (35.6, 9, and 5.5) % for mixtures of (10, 12, and 16) % cement content. When the fumed silica additive was incorporated as partial replacement of cement, the indirect tensile strength of concrete declines by (2.7, 43.8, and 57.5) % and (36.8, 54.1, and 67.6) % for (10, 12, and 15) % replacement for gap and dense gradation respectively. The indirect tensile strength increases after the partial replacement of cement by lime for dense and gap graded mixtures by (187.8, 96.5, and 61.6) % and (260, 131, and 78.5) % for (5, 7, and 10) % replacement respectively. However, the tensile strength of concrete increases after the partial replacement of Portland cement by fly ash for gap and dense graded mixtures by (201, 77, and 24.2) % and (117, 45, and 16.5) % for (20, 30, and 40) % replacement respectively. Fly ash and Hydrated lime are recommended as additives for partial replacement of Portland cement in roller compacted concrete pavement from the indirect tensile strength point of view.

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    Volume :u00a0u00a07 | Issue :u00a0u00a02 | Received :u00a0u00a0October 1, 2021 | Accepted :u00a0u00a0October 10, 2021 | Published :u00a0u00a0November 30, 2021n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)] [/if 424][if 424 equals=”Special Issue”][This article belongs to Special Issue Impact of Additives on the Split Tensile Strength of Roller Compacted Concrete under section in International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)] [/if 424]
    Keywords Indirect tensile strength, roller compacted concrete, fly ash, additives, lime, fumed silica.

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    References

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    1. Saluja S., Goyal S., and Bhattacharjee B. Strength properties of roller compacted concrete containing GGBS as partial replacement of cement. Journal of Eng. Research Vol. 7 No. (1) March 2019. P. 1-17.
    2. Ashteyat A., Al Rjoub Y., Murad Y., Asaad S. Mechanical, and durability behavior of rollercompacted concrete containing white cement bypass dust and polypropylene fiber. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2019.1652694.
    3. Chhorn, C.; Hong, S.J.; Lee, S.W. Relationship between compressive and tensile strengths of roller-compacted concrete. J. Traffic Transp. Eng. 5(3), 2018. P. 215–223.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtte.2017.09.002. International Journal of Concrete Technology
    4. Hesami, S., Modarres, A., Soltaninejad, M., & Madani, H. Mechanical properties of roller compacted concrete pavement containing coal waste and limestone powder as partial replacements of cement. Construction and Building Materials, 111, May 2016. P. 625–636. http://doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.116.
    5. Adamu, M., Mohammed, B. S., & Mohd, S. L. Mechanical properties and performance of highvolume fly ash roller compacted concrete containing crumb rubber and nano silica. Construction and Building Materials, 171, 2018, P. 521–538. http://doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.03.138.
    6. Rahmani E., Sharbatdar K., Beygi M. A comprehensive investigation into the effect of water to cement ratios and cement contents on the physical and mechanical properties of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement (RCCP). Construction and Building Materials 253, 2020. 119177. Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119177.
    7. Hashemi M., Shafigh P., Abbasi M., and Asadi I. The effect of using low fines content sand on the fresh and hardened properties of roller-compacted concrete pavement. Case Studies in Construction Materials, Vol. 11, p. e00230, 2019.
    8. Mohammed B., and Adamu M. Mechanical performance of roller compacted concrete pavement containing crumb rubber and nano silica. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 159, pp. 234-251, 2018.
    9. Lam M., Jaritngam S., Duc-Hien Le. Roller-compacted concrete pavement made of Electric Arc Furnace slag aggregate: Mix design and mechanical properties. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 154, P. 482-495, 2017.
    10. LaHucik J., Dahal S., Roesler J., and Amirkhanian A. Mechanical properties of roller-compacted concrete with macro-fibers. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 135, P. 440-446, 2017.
    11. Li M., Zhang M., Hu Y., and Zhang J. Mechanical properties investigation of high-fluidity impermeable and anti-cracking concrete in high roller-compacted concrete dams. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 156, P. 861-870, 2017.
    12. Khed V., Gokulanadh V., Latha M. A Review on Recent Advancements in Roller Compacted Concrete. International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences (IJIES).Volume-5 Issue12, October 2020. http://.DOI:10.35940/ijies.K0997.1051220.
    13. Iraqi Organization of Standards, IOS 5: 1984, for Portland cement. 1984.
    14. ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM: Road and Paving Material, VehiclePavement System, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.03. 2016. www.Astm.org.
    15. British Standard 882. Concrete Aggregates, British Standards Institution, London, 1965.
    16. SCRB, State commission of roads and bridges, Standard specifications for roads and bridges. Ministry of Housing, and Construction, 2003. Iraq.
    17. ASTM D-1557, Standard Test Method for Moisture-Density Relations of Soils and SoilAggregate Mixtures Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)). Annual Book of ASTM Standards. American Society for Testing and Materials. 04(8): 2002. P. 206–210.www.Astm.org.
    18. Sarsam S. Evaluation of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement Properties, Engineering and Development, Scientific Journal of AL-Mustansiriah University, 6, 2002, P.59-74.
    19. Sarsam S., Salih A., Ghazi S. Effect of Hydrated Lime on the Properties of Roller Compacted Concrete. Journal of Engineering, Number 3 Volume 19 March. 2013, P. 377-387.
    20. Sarsam S. I. Assessing the Influence of Aggregates and Cement Types on Fresh Roller Compacted Concrete Mixture. International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation, Vol 3, Issue 3, 2021. Asian research Association. P. 23-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2134.
    21. Vahedifard, F., Nili, M., & Meehan, C. L. Assessing the effects of supplementary cementitious materials on the performance of low-cement roller compacted concrete pavement. Construction and Building Materials, 24(12), 2010, P. 2528–2535.

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    [if 424 not_equal=”Regular Issue”] Regular Issue[/if 424] Open Access Article

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    International Journal of Concrete Technology

    ISSN: 2456-8317

    Editors Overview

    ijct maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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      By  [foreach 286]n

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      Saad Issa Sarsam

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    1. Professor,Sarsam and Associates Consult Bureau (SACB), Baghdad-IRAQ Formerly at Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad,,Iraq
    2. n[/if 1175][/foreach]

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    Abstract

    nAdditives are implemented as partial replacement of Portland cement in concrete to enhance the required physical properties. In the present investigation, roller compacted concrete slab samples were prepared using gap and dense aggregate gradation. Three percentages of Portland cement were adopted, (16, 12, and 10) % by weight of aggregates. Three types of additives, (hydrated lime, fly ash, and fumed silica) were implemented as partial substitute of Portland cement. Core specimens have been obtained from the prepared slab samples and tested for indirect tensile strength. It was observed that dense gradation exhibits higher tensile strength than gap gradation by (35.6, 9, and 5.5) % for mixtures of (10, 12, and 16) % cement content. When the fumed silica additive was incorporated as partial replacement of cement, the indirect tensile strength of concrete declines by (2.7, 43.8, and 57.5) % and (36.8, 54.1, and 67.6) % for (10, 12, and 15) % replacement for gap and dense gradation respectively. The indirect tensile strength increases after the partial replacement of cement by lime for dense and gap graded mixtures by (187.8, 96.5, and 61.6) % and (260, 131, and 78.5) % for (5, 7, and 10) % replacement respectively. However, the tensile strength of concrete increases after the partial replacement of Portland cement by fly ash for gap and dense graded mixtures by (201, 77, and 24.2) % and (117, 45, and 16.5) % for (20, 30, and 40) % replacement respectively. Fly ash and Hydrated lime are recommended as additives for partial replacement of Portland cement in roller compacted concrete pavement from the indirect tensile strength point of view.n

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    Keywords: Indirect tensile strength, roller compacted concrete, fly ash, additives, lime, fumed silica.

    n[if 424 equals=”Regular Issue”][This article belongs to International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)]

    n[/if 424][if 424 equals=”Special Issue”][This article belongs to Special Issue under section in International Journal of Concrete Technology(ijct)] [/if 424]

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    References

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    1. Saluja S., Goyal S., and Bhattacharjee B. Strength properties of roller compacted concrete containing GGBS as partial replacement of cement. Journal of Eng. Research Vol. 7 No. (1) March 2019. P. 1-17.
    2. Ashteyat A., Al Rjoub Y., Murad Y., Asaad S. Mechanical, and durability behavior of rollercompacted concrete containing white cement bypass dust and polypropylene fiber. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2019.1652694.
    3. Chhorn, C.; Hong, S.J.; Lee, S.W. Relationship between compressive and tensile strengths of roller-compacted concrete. J. Traffic Transp. Eng. 5(3), 2018. P. 215–223.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtte.2017.09.002. International Journal of Concrete Technology
    4. Hesami, S., Modarres, A., Soltaninejad, M., & Madani, H. Mechanical properties of roller compacted concrete pavement containing coal waste and limestone powder as partial replacements of cement. Construction and Building Materials, 111, May 2016. P. 625–636. http://doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.02.116.
    5. Adamu, M., Mohammed, B. S., & Mohd, S. L. Mechanical properties and performance of highvolume fly ash roller compacted concrete containing crumb rubber and nano silica. Construction and Building Materials, 171, 2018, P. 521–538. http://doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.03.138.
    6. Rahmani E., Sharbatdar K., Beygi M. A comprehensive investigation into the effect of water to cement ratios and cement contents on the physical and mechanical properties of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement (RCCP). Construction and Building Materials 253, 2020. 119177. Elsevier, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.119177.
    7. Hashemi M., Shafigh P., Abbasi M., and Asadi I. The effect of using low fines content sand on the fresh and hardened properties of roller-compacted concrete pavement. Case Studies in Construction Materials, Vol. 11, p. e00230, 2019.
    8. Mohammed B., and Adamu M. Mechanical performance of roller compacted concrete pavement containing crumb rubber and nano silica. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 159, pp. 234-251, 2018.
    9. Lam M., Jaritngam S., Duc-Hien Le. Roller-compacted concrete pavement made of Electric Arc Furnace slag aggregate: Mix design and mechanical properties. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 154, P. 482-495, 2017.
    10. LaHucik J., Dahal S., Roesler J., and Amirkhanian A. Mechanical properties of roller-compacted concrete with macro-fibers. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 135, P. 440-446, 2017.
    11. Li M., Zhang M., Hu Y., and Zhang J. Mechanical properties investigation of high-fluidity impermeable and anti-cracking concrete in high roller-compacted concrete dams. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 156, P. 861-870, 2017.
    12. Khed V., Gokulanadh V., Latha M. A Review on Recent Advancements in Roller Compacted Concrete. International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences (IJIES).Volume-5 Issue12, October 2020. http://.DOI:10.35940/ijies.K0997.1051220.
    13. Iraqi Organization of Standards, IOS 5: 1984, for Portland cement. 1984.
    14. ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM: Road and Paving Material, VehiclePavement System, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.03. 2016. www.Astm.org.
    15. British Standard 882. Concrete Aggregates, British Standards Institution, London, 1965.
    16. SCRB, State commission of roads and bridges, Standard specifications for roads and bridges. Ministry of Housing, and Construction, 2003. Iraq.
    17. ASTM D-1557, Standard Test Method for Moisture-Density Relations of Soils and SoilAggregate Mixtures Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)). Annual Book of ASTM Standards. American Society for Testing and Materials. 04(8): 2002. P. 206–210.www.Astm.org.
    18. Sarsam S. Evaluation of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement Properties, Engineering and Development, Scientific Journal of AL-Mustansiriah University, 6, 2002, P.59-74.
    19. Sarsam S., Salih A., Ghazi S. Effect of Hydrated Lime on the Properties of Roller Compacted Concrete. Journal of Engineering, Number 3 Volume 19 March. 2013, P. 377-387.
    20. Sarsam S. I. Assessing the Influence of Aggregates and Cement Types on Fresh Roller Compacted Concrete Mixture. International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Technovation, Vol 3, Issue 3, 2021. Asian research Association. P. 23-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34256/irjmt2134.
    21. Vahedifard, F., Nili, M., & Meehan, C. L. Assessing the effects of supplementary cementitious materials on the performance of low-cement roller compacted concrete pavement. Construction and Building Materials, 24(12), 2010, P. 2528–2535.

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    Regular Issue Open Access Article

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    [if 344 not_equal=””]ISSN: 2456-8317[/if 344]

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    Volume 7
    Issue 2
    Received October 1, 2021
    Accepted October 10, 2021
    Published November 30, 2021

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