Strengthening of Hydraulic Lime with Synthetic, Organic & Bio-Additives: State of the Art Review on Eco-friendly Construction

Year : 2023 | Volume : 11 | Issue : 01 | Page : 87-96

    Chippymol James

  1. Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University, Tamil Nadu, India


Cement is acknowledged to be one of the significant modern construction materials used all over the world because of its excellent properties. Though cement dominates the construction industry, the usage of lime binder is still replaceable because of the need of restoration and repair of existing heritage structures. Though lime offers several advantages such as “breathing”, higher durability and deformability, the performance of the lime mortar is still mistrusted because of its poor compressive strength, long setting time etc. several researchers from the past have identified various techniques to improve the mechanical strength and fresh properties of the lime mortars. This paper attempted to review those significant literatures that were based on performance improvement of lime mortars in the aforesaid parameters. The notable research works include the additions of different herbs in the lime mortar, effects of different plants and animal extracts as additives in lime mortar and effects of different fibres include natural and synthetic fibres in the lime mortar, that are reviewed from various scrupulous literatures and the significant results and outcomes were identified and summarized in this review article. This research review article helps the researchers and practicing engineers to adopt the strengthening method of lime mortar which would be best suited for their restoration applications.

Keywords: Ancient Structures, Bio-additives, Cement-lime mortars, Eco-friendly additives, Lime mortar, Organic additives, Synthetic fibres

This article belongs to Special Issue Conference International Conference on Innovative, Sustainable Materials and Technologies (ICISMT-2022)

How to cite this article: Chippymol James Strengthening of Hydraulic Lime with Synthetic, Organic & Bio-Additives: State of the Art Review on Eco-friendly Construction jopc 2023; 11:87-96
How to cite this URL: Chippymol James Strengthening of Hydraulic Lime with Synthetic, Organic & Bio-Additives: State of the Art Review on Eco-friendly Construction jopc 2023 {cited 2023 Jun 19};11:87-96. Available from:

Full Text

Browse Figures


1. En BS. 459-1; Building Lime Definitions, Specifications and Conformity Criteria. British Standards Institution: London, UK. 2015.
2. Gulbe, Lelde, Vitina, I, Setina, Janina. The Influence of Cement on Properties of Lime Mortars. Procedia Eng. 2017; 172: 325–332p.
3. Nalon, Gustavo Henrique et al. Effect of specimens’ shape and size on the determination of compressive strength and deformability of cement-lime mortars. Mater Res. 2018; 20: 819–825p.
4. Gleize, Müller, Roman. Microstructural investigation of a silica fume–cement–limemortar. Cem Concr compos. 2003;25(2): 171–175p.
5. Cynthia Guardia, Gonzalo Barluenga, Irene Palomar, Gonzalo Diarce. Thermal enhanced cement-lime mortars with phase change materials (PCM), lightweight aggregate and cellulose fibres. Constr Build Mater. 2019;221: 586–594p.
6. Dajiang Zhang, Jihui Zhao, Dongmin Wang, Yiren Wang, Xiangdong Ma. Influence of pozzolanic materials on the properties of natural hydraulic lime-based mortars. Constr Build Mater. 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118360
7. Veiga, Maria, Velosa, Ana, Magalhães, Ana. Experimental Applications of Mortars with Pozzolanic Additions: Characterization and Performance Evaluation. Constr Build Mater. 2009; 23: 318–327p.
8. Thirumalini S, Ravi R, Rajesh M. Experimental investigation on physical and mechanical properties of lime mortar: Effect of organic addition. J Cult Herit. 2017; 31:97–104p
9. Malhotra SK, Tehri SP. Development of bricks from granulated blast furnace slag. Construction and building materials. 1996 Apr 1;10(3):191-3.
10. Jharoka. An illustrated Glossary of Indo – Muslim Architecture, Jaipur vy R. Nath Published by Ajay Nath for HRD Programme, Jaipur, India. 1986; pp.81.
11. FuWei Yang, Bing Jian Zhang, Chang Chu Pan, Yuyao Zeng. Traditional mortar represented by sticky rice mortar-One of the great inventions in ancient China Science in China E: Technological Sciences. Special issue in Engineering Thermo physics. 2008; 52(6):1641–1647p.
12. Chandra. Eklund SL, Villarreal RR. Use of cactus in mortar and concrete. Cem Concr Res. 1998; 1:41–51p.
13. Joseph C Salamore. Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia. CRC Press Ltd. 1996; 9600pp. ISBN: 9780849324703.
14. Indrajit Ray, Gupta AP, Biswas M. Effect of latex and superplasticizer on Portland cement mortar in the fresh state. Cem Concr Compos. 2009; 16(4):309–316p.
15. Fang, Shi qiang, Zhang, Hui, Zhang, Bing, Zheng, Ye. The identification of organic additives in traditional lime mortar. J Cult Herit. 2014; 5:144–150p. 10.1016/j.culher.2013.04.001.
16. Izaguirre A, Lanas J, Alvarez JJ. Effect of a propylene fibre on the behavior of aerial lime-based mortars. Constr Build Mater. 2011; 25: 992–1000p.
17. Stefanidou, Papachristoforou, Kesikidou. Fiber-reinforced lime mortars. 4th Historic Mortars Conference-HMC 2016 Santorini, Greece. Laboratory of Building Materials Department of Civil Engineering Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Thessaloniki, 2016.
18. Jacek Katzer, Jacek Domski. Optimization of fibre reinforcement for waste aggregate cement composite. Constr Build Mater. 2013; 38:790-–795p.
19. Craig J Kennedy, William A. Revie, Lore Troalen, Matthew Wade, Tim J. Wess. Studies of hair for use in lime plaster: Implications for conservation and new work. Polym degrad stab. 2013; 98.4: 894–898p.
20. Drdácký, Miloš, Michoinová, Dagmar. Lime Mortars with Natural Fibres. In book: Brittle Matrix Composites. 2003;523–532p.
21. Santarelli, Maria Laura, Sbardella, Francesca, Zuena, Martina, Tirillò, Jacopo, Sarasini, Fabrizio. K. Basalt fiber reinforced natural hydraulic lime mortars: A potential bio-based material for restoration. Mater Des. 2014; 63:398–406p.
22. F. Kesikidou, Stefanidou M. Natural fiber-reinforced mortars. J Build Eng. 2019.
23. Brahim Mazhoud, Florence Collet, Sylvie Pretot, Julien Chamoin. Hygric and thermal properties of hemp-lime plasters. Build Environ. 2016; 96:206–216p.
24. Elfordy S, Lucas F, Tancret F, Scudeller Y, Goudet L. Mechanical and thermal properties of lime and hemp concrete manufactured by projection process. Constr Build Mater. 2008; 22: 2116–2123p.
25. Rosamaria Codispoti, Daniel V. Oliveira, Renato S. Olivito, Paulo B. Lourenço, Raul Fangueiro. Mechanical performance of natural fiber-reinforced composites for the strengthening of masonry. Compos B Eng. 2015;77: 74–83p.
26. Ravi Ramdoss, Thirumalini Perumal, Sekar. Characterization of Hydraulic Lime Mortar Containing Opuntia Ficus Indica as a Bio-Admixture for Restoration Applications. Int J Archit Heritage. 2015. DOI:10.1080/15583058.2015.1109735.
27. Indian standards, Methods of test for building limes, IS 6932 Part VII – 1973, 1973.
28. Thirumalini P, Ravi R, Sekar S, Nambirajan M. Study on the performance enhancement of lime mortar used in ancient temples and monuments in India. Ind. J. Sci. Technol. 2011; 4 (11): 1484–1487p.

Conference Open Access Original Research
Volume 11
Issue 01
Received December 21, 2022
Accepted May 10, 2023
Published June 19, 2023