Research & Reviews: A Journal of Medicine Cover

Research & Reviews: A Journal of Medicine

ISSN: 2249-8648

Editor Overview

RRJOM maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.


STM Journals, An imprint of Consortium e-Learning Network Pvt. Ltd.

E-mail: [email protected]
(Tel): (+91) 0120- 4781 200
(Mob) (+91) 9810078958, +919667725932

Instruction for Authors

Last updated: 2022-04-30


Welcome to the Instructions for Authors for Research & Reviews: A Journal of Medicine.

This page provides essential instructions for authors interested in submitting their research for publication in STM Journals. RRJOM is committed to publishing high-quality research that contributes significantly to the advancement of knowledge in its specific areas defined in the RRJOM's Focus and Scope. We accept diverse article types, including:

  • Original Research Articles: Presenting novel and impactful findings from your investigations.
  • Review Articles: Offering comprehensive analyses of current research within a specific topic.
  • Case Reports: Describing unique or insightful patient experiences relevant to the field.

Before submitting your manuscript, please carefully review these guidelines to ensure it meets our standards and has the best chance of publication:

  1. Align your research with the RRJOM's Focus and Scope:
    • Visit website to gain a clear understanding of the topics and areas of interest covered by RRJOM.
    • Make sure your research aligns with our scope and contributes meaningfully to the field.
  2. Understand Article Processing Charges (APCs):
    • RRJOM operates as an Hybrid and Open-Access publication, offering authors the benefit of wider readership and discoverability.
    • Review RRJOM APC details on the website to understand the associated publication costs.
  3. Sign the Copyright Agreement:
    • Download and carefully read the copyright agreement available on our website.
    • Obtain signatures from all co-authors before submitting your manuscript.
  4. Format your manuscript meticulously:
    • Read and adhere to the specific formatting guidelines provided on our website. These include font size, line spacing, margin sizes, and citation style.
    • Ensure your manuscript is submitted in Microsoft Word format.
  5. Structure your manuscript clearly:
    • Organize your manuscript with clear headings and sections that follow a logical flow, guiding readers through your research effectively.
  6. Familiarize yourself with publication ethics and guidelines:
    • Review our policies on ethics, plagiarism, figure formats, data sharing, and reference formatting before preparing your manuscript.
    • Ensure your work adheres to ethical research practices and complies with our guidelines.
  7. Update your author information:
    • Provide accurate and up-to-date biographical information on the Academic Publishing Information Database (APID) website.

Eligibility Criteria for Authors

RRJOM welcomes original and impactful research submissions from authors who share our commitment to high-quality, ethical research publication. To contribute your work to our esteemed Journal's, please ensure you meet the following eligibility criteria:

  1. Affiliation
    • Hold an affiliation with a recognized academic institution, research organization, or industry relevant to the RRJOM's field. Affiliation can be demonstrated through current employment, recent graduation, or a formal collaboration with the institution.
    • For industry-affiliated authors, the research submitted should be conducted under the auspices of the affiliated organization and aligned with its research objectives.
    • While student submissions are encouraged, some Journals may have specific requirements for student authors, such as faculty supervision or co-authorship with an experienced researcher.
  2. Research Alignment
    • Your work aligns with the scope and focus areas of the Research & Reviews: A Journal of Medicine.
    • Interdisciplinary research is welcome, but the core contribution of your work should fall within the RRJOM's defined scope.
  3. Ethical Adherence
    • You adhere to the highest ethical standards in research, as outlined in the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines. This includes responsible conduct of research, data collection and analysis, authorship criteria, and conflict of interest disclosure.
    • Familiarity with and adherence to relevant ethical guidelines specific to your research field is also expected.

Author Responsibilities

Submitting your manuscript to RRJOM signifies your understanding and agreement to the following responsibilities:

  1. Originality and Authorship
    • Originality: Ensure your work is original and has not been published elsewhere, unless properly cited and authorized for reuse. Self-archiving on personal websites or institutional repositories is generally permitted as long as the published version in the STM Journal is acknowledged.
    • Authorship criteria: Meet the established criteria for authorship and include all contributing individuals as authors. This generally involves making significant contributions to the conception, design, execution, analysis, interpretation, and writing of the research.
      • Substantial Contribution: Authors who have made substantial contributions to the conception or design of the study, acquisition or analysis of data, or interpretation of findings qualify for authorship. Contributions may vary depending on the nature of the study but should represent a significant intellectual input.
      • Drafting or Revising the Manuscript: Authors who have actively participated in drafting or critically revising the manuscript for important intellectual content should be listed as authors. This includes contributing to the writing, reviewing, and editing of the manuscript to ensure accuracy and clarity.
      • Final Approval: All authors should provide final approval of the manuscript before submission, indicating their agreement with its content and findings. This ensures that all authors take responsibility for the integrity and accuracy of the work presented.
      • Accountability: Authors are accountable for the accuracy and integrity of the work, including ensuring that data are appropriately collected, analyzed, and interpreted. They should be able to defend the integrity of the research and address any questions or concerns raised about the study.
      • Authorship/Copyright Form: Each author must complete and submit an Authorship/Copyright Form, acknowledging their contributions and granting permission for publication.
      • Corresponding Author Responsibility: The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the author list accurately reflects all contributing co-authors and that no uninvolved individuals are included as authors. Corresponding Author is the one who will handle communication with the Journal Managers and be responsible for the overall integrity of the work.
      • Order of Authors: Once the manuscript is submitted, the order of authors cannot be changed without the written consent of all contributors, ensuring fairness and transparency in authorship attribution.
      • Rejection of Manuscript
        • Once the manuscript is rejected authors can take advice from the commissioning editor on how to make desired corrections in the manuscript.
        • After the desired corrections have been made then only the author can resubmit the manuscript again.
  2. Ethical Conduct and Data Sharing
    • Ethical adherence: Conduct research, analyze data, and present findings in accordance with ethical guidelines and responsible research practices. This includes obtaining necessary approvals, informed consent, and ensuring participant anonymity where applicable.
    • Data availability: Share underlying data upon reasonable request, following ethical and legal considerations. This generally involves making anonymized data available to other researchers for verification and further analysis.
    • Conflict of interest disclosure: Disclose any potential conflicts of interest that could influence your research or its interpretation, including financial interests, personal relationships, or affiliations with sponsoring organizations.
  3. Manuscript Quality and Responsiveness
    • Formatting and content: Submit a well-written, original, and ethically sound manuscript that adheres to the specific formatting and content guidelines of RRJOM. These guidelines usually cover aspects like word count, reference style, figure and table formatting, and required sections.
    • Responsiveness: Respond promptly to reviewer feedback and Editorial requests throughout the publication process. This includes addressing reviewer comments, providing revisions, and clarifying any questions raised by the editors.
  4. Be familiar with and adhere to the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, as well as any relevant ethical guidelines specific to your research field.
  5. Acknowledge the contributions of others, including funding sources, collaborators, and individuals who provided assistance with various aspects of the research.
  6. Maintain accurate and up-to-date contact information during the submission and publication process.
  7. Be aware of and comply with copyright regulations regarding your published work.

Artificial Intelligence

These guidelines pertain to the appropriate utilization of generative AI technologies, including Large Language Models (e.g., ChatGPT, Jasper) and text-to-image generators (e.g., DALL-E 2, Midjourney, Stable Diffusion), in the writing or editing processes of manuscripts submitted to STM Journals.

AI Use by Authors

Authors are advised against listing any generative AI technology as a co-author or author of a submitted manuscript. Generative AI technologies lack the capacity to be held accountable for all manuscript aspects, thus failing to meet the criteria for authorship.

If an author incorporates written or visual content generated by or edited using a generative AI technology, such usage must adhere strictly to all STM Journal guidelines and policies. The author assumes responsibility for verifying the factual accuracy of content generated by the generative AI technology, which encompasses quotes, citations, references, and figures. Figures created or edited via generative AI technology should accurately reflect the manuscript data. Additionally, authors must ensure that any content generated or edited by generative AI technology is free from plagiarism.

If an author integrates written or visual content produced by or edited using a generative AI technology, acknowledgment must be made in the acknowledgments section of the manuscript and, if applicable, in the methods section. This acknowledgment should include details such as the name, version, model, and source of the generative AI technology.

Authors are encouraged to include all input prompts provided to generative AI technology and outputs received from it in the supplementary files accompanying the manuscript.

Manuscript Submission Requirements

  • Manuscript Preparation: Follow our specific formatting guidelines, including font, size, spacing, and reference style. Detailed instructions are in the Manuscript Preparation section of our website.
  • Originality: Your work must be original, unpublished, and not under consideration elsewhere. Secure permission for any copyrighted material included.
  • Ethics: Adhere to ethical guidelines in your research, including informed consent, ethical animal experiments, and disclosing conflicts of interest. Report any ethical issues in your manuscript.
  • Authorship: All authors must have significantly contributed to the research and writing. The corresponding author ensures all co-authors have read and approved the final version.
  • Peer review: Manuscripts undergo rigorous peer review by at least two independent experts. You can suggest potential reviewers, but the final decision rests with the editors.
  • Article Processing Charge: As an Hybird and Open-Access Journal, RRJOM offers wider reach and discoverability. The Journal may require an APC to cover publication costs. The corresponding author is responsible for paying this fee or finding funding.
  • Copyright: Upon acceptance, authors transfer copyright ownership to RRJOM through a copyright transfer agreement.
  • Retraction:We reserve the right to retract articles due to misconduct or errors.
  • Data availability: Make all data and materials associated with your manuscript available upon request.

For any further queries, please write us at: [email protected] or submit your query on the Query Portal. All submissions are bound by RRJOM’s terms of service.

Type of Articles Accepted

Before proceeding to write your research findings, it is important to have an idea about the types of research articles you can submit to a journal and which type of research article works best for your research work.

  • Original Research: Full reports of new research results and findings based on empirical studies, experiments, or theoretical models.
  • Review Articles: Critical evaluations and syntheses of existing research on a specific topic, identifying gaps and future research directions.
  • Short Communications/Letters: Brief reports of preliminary or significant findings requiring expedited publication.
  • Case Studies: In-depth descriptions of unusual or interesting individual patient/subject experiences with clinical relevance.
  • Methodological Articles: Detailed descriptions of new or innovative research methods and their applications.
  • Perspectives/Editorials: Opinion pieces offering expert insights, commentary, or debate on current issues in the field.
  • Data Articles: Datasets accompanying research articles to ensure data transparency and reproducibility.
  • Book Reviews: Critical evaluations of recently published books relevant to the Journal's scope.
  • Study design: Selection and Description of Participants: Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (

    Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs

    Study Design Reporting Guideline Sources
    Randomized Controlled Trials CONSORT
    Observational Studies STROBE
    Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA
    Non-Randomized Evaluations TREND
    Animal Research ARRIVE
    Qualitative Research COREQ
    Reliability and Agreement Studies GRRAS

    The reporting guidelines for other type of studies can be found at

  • Statistics: Whenever possible quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Authors should report losses to observation (such as, dropouts from a clinical trial). When data are summarized in the Results section, specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Avoid non-technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as 'random' (which implies a randomizing device), 'normal', 'significant', 'correlations', and 'sample'. Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify the computer software used. Use upper italics (P 0.048). For all P values include the exact value and not less than 0.05 or 0.001. Mean differences in continuous variables, proportions in categorical variables and relative risks including odds ratios and hazard ratios should be accompanied by their confidence intervals.
  • Results: Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. Extra- or supplementary materials and technical detail can be placed in an appendix where it will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text; alternatively, it can be published only in the electronic version of the journal.
  • When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included.
  • Discussion: Include summary of key findings (primary outcome measures, secondary outcome measures, results as they relate to a prior hypothesis); Strengths and limitations of the study (study question, study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation); Interpretation and implications in the context of the totality of evidence (is there a systematic review to refer to, if not, could one be reasonably done here and now?, what this study adds to the available evidence, effects on patient care and health policy, possible mechanisms); Controversies raised by this study; and Future research directions (for this particular research collaboration, underlying mechanisms, clinical research).
  • Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the Introduction or the Results section. In particular, contributors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless their manuscript includes economic data and analyses. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. New hypotheses may be stated if needed, however they should be clearly labeled as such. About 30 references can be included. These articles generally should not have more than six authors.

Manuscript Preperation

Formatting and Style Guide
Style and Format Description Example
File format Choose DOC, DOCX, or RTF for compatibility. Avoid encrypted or password-protected formats. Submit your manuscript in a DOCX file if using Microsoft Word.
Length Adhere to word/page limits. Check the "Type of Articles Accepted" section above for specific limits per article type. A research article might require 3500-5000 words, while a case study could be 2000-3500 words.
Font Opt for standard, readable fonts like Times New Roman (12pt) or Arial (10pt). Avoid decorative or uncommon fonts that might affect readability.
Headings Use a clear hierarchy (e.g., bold, numbered) to structure your manuscript. Employ consistent styles like "Introduction" (bold, centered) and "Methods" (bold, left-aligned).
Layout and spacing Ensure single line spacing with double spacing between paragraphs. Maintain consistent margins. Avoid excessive blank space or inconsistent margins that disrupt visual flow.
Page and line numbers Include continuous page numbers, starting after the title page. Omit line numbers. Number pages consecutively (e.g., "1", "2", ...) throughout the manuscript.
Footnotes Integrate essential information into the main text or reference list. Use footnotes sparingly. If absolutely necessary, use footnotes for brief clarifications not suitable for the main text.
Language Submit in the journal's specified language (e.g., American English). Ensure proper grammar and consistent usage. Adhere to the designated language and maintain consistent grammar, spelling, and terminology throughout.
Abbreviations Define abbreviations upon first use and use them consistently thereafter. Prioritize clarity. Introduce "HIV" upon first mention, then use it consistently. Avoid excessive abbreviations that confuse readers.
Reference style Follow the journal's specified reference style (e.g., APA, Vancouver). Use reference management software for accuracy. Format references according to the chosen style (e.g., APA: Author, Year. Title. Journal, Volume(Issue): Pages).
Equations Use an equation editor or high-quality graphics for complex equations. Ensure legibility, numbering, and in-text reference. Present equations clearly using an equation editor (e.g., MathType) or high-resolution graphics. Number equations consecutively and refer to them within the text (e.g., "(Eq. 2)").
Nomenclature Define specialized terms, symbols, and units upon first use. Maintain consistency throughout. Introduce "RNA-seq" upon first mention, then use it consistently. Ensure consistent usage of all specialized terms and units.

Manuscript Preperation

Section Description
Beginning Section
  • Title Page: Includes the title, author names, affiliations, and corresponding author information.
  • Abstract: A concise summary of the research objectives, methods, results, and conclusions.
  • Keywords: Relevant terms or phrases that help index and categorize the manuscript.
Middle Section
  • Introduction: Provides background information, research objectives, and hypotheses.
  • Methods: Describes the research design, data collection, and analysis procedures.
  • Results: Presents the findings of the study in a clear and organized manner.
  • Discussion: Interprets the results, discusses their implications, and relates them to existing literature.
Ending Section
  • Conclusion: Summarizes the main findings and their significance.
  • Acknowledgments: Recognizes individuals or organizations that contributed to the research.
  • References: Lists all sources cited in the manuscript following a specific citation style.
Other Elements
  • Tables and Figures: Present additional data or visual aids to support the findings.
  • Appendices: Include supplementary material such as raw data, questionnaires, or additional analyses.
  • Conflict of Interest Statement: Discloses any potential conflicts of interest related to the research.

Parts of a Manuscript

Writing a scientific communication be it a research article or any other form of communication follows a rigid pattern or format that an author should follow. The format that you will follow with us is a result of the tedious process that focuses transfer of information between you and the scientific community. Here is a general format that an article follows:

Your manuscript's first impression, the title page should be informative and eye-catching.

Title of the Manuscript

The title of a manuscript plays a vital role in conveying the main focus and findings of the research to potential readers. It serves as the first point of contact and should be crafted carefully to engage and entice the audience. Here are the key considerations for drafting an effective title:

  • Highlight Content: The title should effectively highlight the main content or theme of the manuscript. It should provide readers with a clear understanding of what the research entails.
  • Concise and Descriptive: A good title is concise yet descriptive, conveying the essential elements of the research in a limited number of words. It should capture the essence of the study without being overly verbose.
  • Word Limit: The title should adhere to a word limit, typically not exceeding 50 words. This constraint ensures that the title remains succinct and to the point.
  • Capitalization: Capitalize the first letter of each major word in the title, except for prepositions and conjunctions. This capitalization style enhances readability and professionalism.
  • Unambiguous and Specific: The title should be unambiguous and specific, avoiding unnecessary words or punctuation marks. Clarity is key to ensuring that readers understand the focus of the research at a glance.
  • Avoid Jargon or Abbreviations: Steer clear of using jargon or abbreviations that may not be familiar to all readers. The title should be accessible to a broad audience and free from overly technical language.
  • Enticing: The title should be enticing and captivating, drawing the reader's attention and sparking curiosity about the research findings. A compelling title can significantly impact the visibility and reception of the manuscript.

    For Example:

  1. "Effects of Climate Change on Coral Reef Diversity: A Meta-Analysis"
    • This title effectively highlights the main content (effects of climate change) and methodology (meta-analysis) of the research. It is concise, descriptive, and specific, adhering to the word limit and capitalization guidelines.
  2. "Investigating the Impact of Soil pH on Crop Yield: A Field Study in Midwest Farms"
    • This title clearly outlines the research topic (impact of soil pH on crop yield) and methodology (field study) while providing geographic context (Midwest farms). It avoids unnecessary words and punctuation marks, maintaining clarity and specificity.
  3. "Understanding Neural Mechanisms of Memory Formation: Insights from Functional Neuroimaging Studies"
    • This title highlights the research focus (neural mechanisms of memory formation) and methodology (functional neuroimaging studies). It is concise, descriptive, and free from jargon or abbreviations, making it accessible to a broad audience.
  4. "Exploring the Role of Gut Microbiota in Obesity: Implications for Therapeutic Interventions"
    • This title succinctly summarizes the research topic (role of gut microbiota in obesity) and emphasizes the potential implications for therapeutic interventions. It is unambiguous, specific, and enticing, prompting further exploration of the manuscript's content.

Author Details

All the authors who have contributed to your research deserve to be credited for the work and the names should be listed in the same line separated by a comma. The corresponding author doesn’t need to always be the first author, and the order of name may vary at your convenience. But it is advised to highlight the name of the corresponding author with a star (Example: Abhishek Prasad*) to make it easy for the readers to identify the corresponding author. Correspondence should include an Email address, Telephone, and Postal address of which email and postal address are mandatory. Authors are encouraged to add a profile (maximum 200 words) to the submission and publish it. This should be a single paragraph and contain:

  • Author Names: List the full names of all authors who contributed to the research. The names should be presented in the order that reflects their level of contribution, typically starting with the primary author or lead researcher.
  • Affiliations: Provide the affiliations of each author, including their institutional or organizational affiliations, departmental affiliations (if applicable), and location (city, state, country). This information helps establish the authors' credentials and institutional connections.
  • Corresponding Author: Designate one author as the corresponding author responsible for communication with the journal editor and handling inquiries related to the manuscript. Include the corresponding author's email address and possibly other contact information, such as a mailing address or phone number.

    For Example:

  1. Authors:
    • John Smith
    • Emily Johnson
    • Michael Lee
  2. Affiliations:
    • John Smith: Department of Biology, University of XYZ, City, Country
    • Emily Johnson: Department of Environmental Science, University of ABC, City, Country
    • Michael Lee: Department of Agriculture, University of LMN, City, Country
  3. Corresponding Author:

Author Contributions

The Author Contributions section outlines the specific contributions made by each author to the conception, design, execution, analysis, and interpretation of the research. It is essential for establishing accountability and recognizing the diverse contributions that lead to the completion of the study. Here are key considerations for drafting an Author Contributions section:

  • Clear Definition of Contributions: Clearly delineate the contributions of each author to the research project. This may include conceptualization, methodology development, data collection, analysis, interpretation, and manuscript preparation.
  • Consistent Formatting: Present author contributions in a consistent format, typically in a bulleted or paragraph form. Ensure that each author's contributions are clearly articulated and easily understandable.
  • Inclusive Representation: Acknowledge all individuals who made substantial contributions to the research but may not qualify as authors according to standard authorship criteria. This may include individuals who provided technical assistance, administrative support, or funding acquisition.
  • Transparency and Accountability: Provide a transparent account of author contributions to ensure accountability and fairness in assigning credit for the work. Authors should accurately represent their roles in the research process.
  • Authorship Order: Specify the order of authors based on their level of contribution to the research. The first author is typically the individual who made the most significant contributions, followed by co-authors in descending order of their contributions.

    For Example:

  1. John Smith: Conceptualization, Methodology, Formal analysis, Writing - original draft Emily Johnson: Data curation, Investigation, Visualization, Writing - review & editing Michael Lee: Supervision, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing - review & editing
  2. Sarah Brown: Conceptualization, Methodology, Software, Validation, Writing - original draft David White: Data curation, Formal analysis, Visualization, Writing - review & editing James Taylor: Investigation, Resources, Supervision, Project administration
  3. Samantha Clark: Conceptualization, Methodology, Formal analysis, Writing - original draft Matthew Wilson: Data curation, Investigation, Visualization, Writing - review & editing Olivia Garcia: Software, Validation, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing Daniel Martinez: Supervision, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing - review & editing


The Abstract section offers a brief overview of the research, typically spanning 200-250 words. It encapsulates the main components of the study, including the research question, methodology, key findings, and significance. Here are the key considerations for drafting an effective abstract:

  • Clearly Written and Engaging: The abstract should be clearly written and engaging, providing readers with a concise understanding of the research without delving into unnecessary technical details. Aim for clarity and avoid scientific jargon to ensure accessibility to a broad audience.
  • Background: The abstract begins by providing context for the research topic, highlighting its importance and relevance to the field. It should briefly outline the problem or research gap addressed by the study.
  • Objectives: Next, the abstract states the specific objectives or research questions addressed in the study. This helps readers understand the purpose and focus of the research.
  • Keywords: Include 5-8 relevant keywords at the end of the abstract to aid indexing and enhance discoverability. These keywords should accurately reflect the main topics or themes addressed in the research.
  • Methods: The abstract summarizes the methodology or approach used to conduct the study. It briefly describes the study design, data collection methods, and analytical techniques employed.
  • Results: The abstract presents the main findings or outcomes of the study. It should highlight key results and significant findings, providing readers with a glimpse of the study's main conclusions.
  • Conclusions: Finally, the abstract concludes by summarizing the main conclusions drawn from the study. It may also highlight the broader implications or potential applications of the research findings.

    For Example:

  1. Title: Effects of Climate Change on Coral Reef Diversity: A Meta-Analysis

    This meta-analysis examines the effects of climate change on coral reef diversity. Using data from 50 studies, we synthesized findings to assess changes in species richness and abundance across various taxa. Our results indicate a significant decline in biodiversity, particularly in the Indo-Pacific region, highlighting the urgent need for conservation efforts to mitigate the impacts of climate change on coral reefs.

    climate change, coral reefs, biodiversity, meta-analysis, conservation

  2. Title: Investigating the Impact of Soil pH on Crop Yield: A Field Study in Midwest Farms

    This field study investigates the impact of soil pH on crop yield in Midwest farms. Through comprehensive soil sampling and crop yield assessments, we found a significant correlation between soil pH levels and crop productivity. Our findings underscore the importance of soil management practices in optimizing agricultural productivity and sustainability.

    soil pH, crop yield, agriculture, Midwest, soil management

Section Headings or Typography

Section headings help organize the content of the manuscript and guide readers through its structure. They should be clear, consistent, and distinguishable from the body text. Different levels of headings (e.g., main heading, subheading, sub-subheading) are used to denote hierarchical relationships between sections.

  • Level 1: Main Heading:
    • Main headings typically represent major sections of the manuscript and are often formatted in bold or larger font size to make them stand out.

      Example: "Introduction", "Materials and Methods", "Results"
  • Level 2: Subheading:
    • Subheadings are used to divide main sections into smaller subsections and are usually formatted in bold or italicized text.

      Example: "Study Design", "Data Collection", "Statistical Analysis"
  • Level 3: Sub-subheading:
    • Sub-subheadings further break down subsections into more specific topics and are typically formatted in italicized text or with a different font style.

      Example: "Participant Recruitment", "Laboratory Procedures", "Data Interpretation"


Bullets are often used to present lists or items in a clear and concise manner. They help improve readability and organization by highlighting key points or information.

For Example:

  • Key Findings:
    • Increased crop yield by 20%.
    • Reduced water consumption by 30%.
    • Improved soil fertility.
  • Line Spacing

    Proper line spacing enhances readability and comprehension of the manuscript. It is recommended to use double-spacing throughout the document, including between lines of text, headings, and paragraphs.

    Colors and Highlight

    Colors and highlights can be used sparingly to draw attention to important information or to differentiate elements within the manuscript. However, it's essential to ensure that color choices are accessible to all readers, including those with color vision deficiencies.

    For Example:

  • Highlighting key findings in a different color.
  • Using colored text or background for tables or figures to distinguish between different data categories.
  • Citation Statements and Declarations

    Citation statements and declarations are included to provide transparency and acknowledge the sources of information used in the manuscript. This may include statements about ethical considerations, conflicts of interest, data availability, or author contributions.

    For Example:

  • Ethical Approval: "This study was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000."
  • Data Availability: "The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request."
  • Publishing Etiquette

    This is an Hybrid and Open-Access Journal's Website that allows researchers to record their methods in a structured way, obtain a DOI to allow easy citation of the protocol, collaborate with selected colleagues, share their protocol privately for journal peer review, and choose to make it publicly available. Once published, the protocol can be updated and cited in other articles. You can make your protocol public before publication of your article if you choose, which will not harm the peer review process of your article and may allow you to get comments about your methods to adapt or improve them before you submit your article.

    Funding statement

    Authors must state how the research and publication of their article was funded, by naming a financially supporting body(s) (written out in full) followed by associated grant number(s) in square brackets (if applicable). Note that some funders will not refund article processing charges (APC) if the funder and grant number are not clearly and correctly identified in the paper. If the research did not receive specific funding, but was performed as part of the employment of the authors, please name this employer. If the funder was involved in the manuscript writing, editing, approval, or decision to publish, please declare this.

    For Example:

  • "This research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (grant numbers XXXXXXX and XXXXXXX) and the National Science Foundation (grant number XXXXXXX)."
  • Introduction

    The introduction sets the stage for the research by providing background information, stating the research question or hypothesis, and outlining the purpose of the study.

    • Background: The Introduction begins with a brief overview of the research topic, highlighting its importance and relevance in the field. This may include a summary of previous research, gaps in knowledge, or unresolved questions that the current study seeks to address.
    • Research Objectives or Hypotheses: Authors should clearly state the research objectives, questions, or hypotheses that guided the study. This helps orient readers and provides a roadmap for the rest of the manuscript.
    • Significance of the Study: Authors should articulate why the research is important and how it contributes to advancing scientific knowledge or addressing real-world problems. This may involve discussing potential implications, applications, or benefits of the research findings.
    • Scope and Organization: Authors may briefly outline the scope of the study and how the manuscript is structured. This provides readers with an overview of what to expect and helps them navigate the rest of the paper.

      For Example:

    1. Background: Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on the planet, providing critical habitat for numerous marine species and supporting millions of people worldwide through fisheries, tourism, and coastal protection. However, coral reefs are increasingly threatened by climate change, which is causing rising sea temperatures, ocean acidification, and more frequent and severe coral bleaching events.

      Research Objectives: In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of climate change on coral reef diversity using a meta-analytical approach. conservation

      Significance of the Study: Our findings have important implications for coral reef conservation and management strategies in the face of ongoing climate change.

      Scope and Organization: The remainder of the manuscript is structured as follows: Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions.

    2. Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline and memory loss. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms of AD pathogenesis remain incompletely understood.

      Research Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the role of amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation in AD pathogenesis using transgenic mouse models.

      Significance of the Study: Elucidating the mechanisms of Aβ aggregation in AD may lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions for this devastating disease.

      Scope and Organization: Following this Introduction, we present our Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions.

    Materials and Methods

    The Materials and Methods section serves as a roadmap for replicating the study and understanding the scientific rigor employed in the research process. It typically includes the following components:

    • Study Design: Describe the overall design of the study, including the research question or hypothesis being tested. Outline any experimental treatments, interventions, or variables manipulated in the study.
    • Materials: Provide a comprehensive list of all materials, equipment, reagents, and instruments used in the study. Include specific details such as brand names, models, and suppliers to facilitate reproducibility.
    • Methods: Describe the step-by-step procedures followed to conduct the study, including data collection, measurements, and analyses. Be thorough and specific, providing sufficient detail for readers to replicate the experiments.
    • Data Analysis: Explain the statistical methods and analytical techniques used to analyze the data. Describe any software programs or statistical packages employed in the analysis and justify their use.
    • Ethical Considerations: Address any ethical considerations or approvals obtained for conducting the study, such as institutional review board (IRB) approval for human subjects research or animal care and use protocols for animal studies.

      For Example:

    1. Study Design:
      • "A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the efficacy of a new drug in reducing blood pressure levels in hypertensive patients. Patients were randomly assigned to either the treatment group receiving the drug or the control group receiving a placebo."
    2. Materials:
      • "The following materials were used in the study:
        • Drug X (Brand name: HypoBp), obtained from PharmaCorp Inc.
        • Placebo capsules, identical in appearance to Drug X, obtained from PharmaPlacebos LLC.
        • Automated blood pressure monitor (Model: BP-2000), manufactured by HealthTech Solutions.
        • Laboratory-grade chemicals and reagents, including sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and distilled water."
    3. Methods:
      • "Blood pressure measurements were obtained using the automated blood pressure monitor. Patients were instructed to sit quietly for 5 minutes before measurements were taken. Three consecutive readings were recorded, and the average was calculated for analysis. Measurements were taken at baseline and at weekly intervals for a total of 12 weeks."
    4. Data Analysis:
      • "Descriptive statistics, including means and standard deviations, were calculated for baseline characteristics of the study population. Between-group differences in blood pressure levels were analyzed using independent t-tests. Changes in blood pressure over time were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Statistical significance was set at p 0.05."
    5. Ethical Considerations:
      • "This study was conducted in accordance with the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board at XYZ University. Informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to enrollment in the study."

    Results, Discussion, Conclusions

    The Results, Discussion, and Conclusions sections are pivotal components of a manuscript, collectively presenting the research findings, interpreting their significance, and drawing overarching conclusions.

    • Results:
      • The Results section presents the primary findings of the study in a clear and organized manner.
      • It provides a factual account of the data collected, analyzed, and interpreted during the research process.
      • Results are typically presented using tables, figures, graphs, or descriptive text, depending on the nature of the data.
      • Statistical analyses and significant findings are highlighted to support the research objectives and hypotheses.
    • Discussion:
      • The Discussion section interprets the results presented in the previous section, providing context, analysis, and implications.
      • It compares the findings to existing literature, evaluates their significance, and discusses potential explanations or mechanisms underlying the observed results.
      • The discussion may address limitations of the study, alternative interpretations of the data, and future research directions.
      • It offers insights into the broader implications of the research and its relevance to the field.
    • Conclusions:
      • The Conclusions section summarizes the main findings of the study and their implications.
      • It restates the research objectives or hypotheses and provides a concise summary of the key results.
      • Conclusions may also discuss the significance of the findings in addressing the research question or contributing to the broader knowledge base.
      • Recommendations for future research or practical applications of the findings may be included.

      For Example:

    1. Results:
      • Table 1: Summary of demographic characteristics of study participants
      • Figure 1: Mean scores on the anxiety scale pre- and post-intervention
      • The Results section presents the demographic characteristics of the study participants and summarizes the changes in anxiety scores pre- and post-intervention. Statistical analyses reveal a significant reduction in anxiety levels following the intervention (p < 0.001).
    2. Discussion:
      • Our findings indicate a significant reduction in anxiety levels among participants following the intervention, consistent with previous studies on mindfulness-based stress reduction techniques. The observed improvements in anxiety symptoms may be attributed to the effects of the intervention on stress regulation and emotional well-being. However, it's important to acknowledge the limitations of our study, including the small sample size and lack of a control group. Future research should explore the long-term effects of mindfulness interventions on anxiety management and examine potential moderators of treatment outcomes.
    3. Conclusions:
      • In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in reducing anxiety symptoms among individuals with chronic stress. These findings have important implications for the development of targeted interventions for anxiety management and highlight the potential benefits of integrating mindfulness practices into clinical settings. Further research is needed to validate our findings and explore additional factors influencing treatment outcomes.


    The Acknowledgments section serves as a platform for authors to acknowledge the contributions and support received during the research process. While co-authors are listed in the authorship section, the Acknowledgments section allows authors to recognize the efforts of individuals or entities who may have provided assistance, guidance, funding, resources, or encouragement but did not meet the criteria for authorship.

    Key Considerations for Acknowledgments:

    • Express Gratitude: The primary purpose of the Acknowledgments section is to express gratitude and appreciation to those who have contributed to the research in various capacities.
    • Recognition of Contributions: Acknowledge specific contributions or forms of support provided by individuals, organizations, or institutions. This may include technical assistance, data collection, funding, mentorship, or access to resources.
    • Clarity and Conciseness: Keep the acknowledgments concise and focused, avoiding lengthy or overly detailed descriptions. Provide enough information to convey the nature of the contributions without overshadowing the main content of the manuscript.
    • Permission to Acknowledge: Seek permission from individuals or organizations before including their names in the acknowledgments. Some individuals may prefer not to be acknowledged publicly, so it's essential to respect their preferences.
    • Include Funding Sources: If the research received financial support from grants, scholarships, or institutions, acknowledge the funding sources in the Acknowledgments section.
    • Professional Tone: Maintain a professional and respectful tone in the acknowledgments, avoiding casual language or personal anecdotes that may detract from the formal nature of the manuscript.

      For Example:-

    1. Technical Assistance and Support:

      "The authors would like to thank Dr. Sarah Smith for her invaluable technical assistance and guidance throughout the course of this study."

    2. Financial Support:

      "This research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (Grant Nos. XXXXXX and YYYYYY). The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by these funding agencies."

    3. Data Collection and Analysis:

      "We extend our appreciation to the field research team for their diligent efforts in data collection and analysis. Special thanks to [Name] for coordinating fieldwork logistics."

    4. Access to Resources:

      "The authors acknowledge [Name of Institution] for providing access to laboratory facilities and equipment essential for conducting experiments."

    5. Mentorship and Guidance:

      "The authors express their gratitude to [Name] for his/her mentorship and insightful feedback during the preparation of this manuscript."


    Lists of references cited in medical texts are critical components that provide readers with the necessary information to locate and verify the sources mentioned in the manuscript. Accuracy and consistency in citing sources are crucial, as readers often judge an article based on the reliability of the referenced material.

    Key Guidelines for References:

    • Numerical Order: References should be cited in the text in numerical order, with the corresponding reference numbers enclosed in square brackets. They should appear in line with the text. References should not be cited in abstracts.
    • Formatting during Typesetting: Reference lists will be formatted during the typesetting process by the publisher. Authors are not required to follow a specific format but must ensure that complete bibliographic details are provided.
    • Initials for Authors: Use initials rather than full first names for cited authors. List the first three authors' names and use "et al." after the third author if there are more than three.
    • Abbreviations for Journal Titles: Abbreviations for titles of medical periodicals should conform to those used in Index Medicus. Authors can refer to the Index Medicus website for the correct abbreviations.
    • Double-Spaced Bibliographies: Type bibliographies double-spaced under the heading "REFERENCES." Do not underline or use all capital letters.
    • Abbreviate Publisher Names: Abbreviate book publishers' names by eliminating their initials and other designations such as "Company," "Inc," "Bros," and "Ltd."
    • Foreign-language Titles: Foreign-language titles of cited books and articles should be given in the original language. Pay attention to proper use of accents, capitalization of German nouns, and other conventions. If the original language does not use the Roman alphabet, provide the title in English, followed by a parenthetical note indicating the original language.
    • Completeness of References: Bibliographic references should be complete, including inclusive page numbers. For one-page entries, indicate "abstract" or "letter to editor" as appropriate.
    • Checking for Accuracy: Before submitting the manuscript for publication, authors should carefully check bibliographic numbers and the spelling of authors' names in the text against their form in the references.

      For Example:

    1. Smith AB, Johnson CD, Lee EF, et al. Effects of climate change on coral reef ecosystems. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 2020;620:1-15.
    2. Jones XY, Brown RW. Coral bleaching events in the Great Barrier Reef. In: White S, editor. Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems. Cham: Springer; 2019. p. 123-145.
    3. Nguyen HD, et al. (2018). Coral reef conservation. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available at: Accessed January 30, 2024.
    4. Johnson EL. Impacts of ocean acidification on coral reef ecosystems. Doctoral dissertation, University of XYZ, 2017.

    Supporting information

    The Supporting Information section complements the main text by including supplementary material that may include additional data, figures, tables, methods, or analyses. It serves several purposes:

    • Enhanced Understanding: Supporting information can provide additional details or analyses that further elucidate the research findings presented in the main text.
    • Reproducibility: Including raw data, code, or detailed methodologies in the supporting information facilitates the reproducibility of the research by allowing other researchers to verify the results or replicate the study.
    • Completeness: Supplementary material may include additional results, figures, or tables that were not included in the main text due to space constraints but are relevant to the research.
    • Compliance: Some journals require certain types of supplementary material to be submitted as supporting information to ensure compliance with editorial policies or ethical guidelines.

      For Example:

    1. Supplementary Table 1: Summary of participants' demographic characteristics
      • This table provides detailed demographic information about the study participants, such as age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, which supplements the main text's findings.
    2. Supplementary Figure 1: Flowchart of study procedures
      • This figure visually represents the flow of participants through the study, including recruitment, randomization, interventions, follow-up, and data analysis, enhancing the understanding of the study methodology.
    3. Supplementary Methods: Detailed description of statistical analyses
      • This section provides a comprehensive explanation of the statistical methods and analyses used in the study, including formulas, software packages, and parameter estimates, facilitating the reproducibility of the research.
    4. Supplementary Dataset: Raw data for all study variables
      • This dataset contains the raw data collected during the study, including participant responses, measurements, or observations, allowing other researchers to reanalyze the data or conduct additional analyses.

    Figures and Tables

    Figures and tables are essential components of scientific manuscripts that visually represent data, results, and other relevant information. They serve to enhance understanding, provide clarity, and effectively communicate key findings to readers.

    • Figures:
      • Purpose: Figures are graphical representations of data, illustrating trends, relationships, or concepts presented in the manuscript. They can include graphs, charts, diagrams, photographs, maps, or other visual elements.
      • Enhancing Understanding: Figures help readers visualize complex information more effectively than text alone. They can clarify concepts, highlight trends, and provide context for the research findings.
      • Captioning: Each figure should be accompanied by a descriptive caption that explains the content and significance of the figure. Captions should be concise yet informative, providing readers with essential details about the figure's content.
    • Tables:
      • Purpose: Tables present numerical data in a structured format, allowing readers to compare and analyze information more systematically. They are particularly useful for organizing large datasets, summarizing results, or presenting statistical analyses.
      • Organizing Data: Tables provide a clear and organized format for presenting data, allowing readers to identify patterns, trends, and relationships more easily.
      • Captioning and Numbering: Like figures, tables should be numbered consecutively in the order they are mentioned in the text. Each table should have a descriptive caption that provides context and explains the data presented in the table.

    For Example:

    • Figure 1:

      Example Figure: Line Graph Showing
  Temperature Trends Over Time

      Caption: Line graph illustrating temperature trends over time in the study area.

    • Table 1:
      Summary of mean scores, standard deviations, and sample sizes for control and experimental groups.
      Treatment Group Mean Score Standard Deviation Sample Size
      Control 75 5 30
      Experimental 85 6 30
    • Figure 2:

      Example Figure: Bar Chart Comparing
  Species Diversity

      Caption: Bar chart comparing species diversity in different habitats.

    • Table 2:
      Summary of mean scores, standard deviations, and sample sizes for control and experimental groups.
      Participant ID Age (years) Gender Blood Pressure (mmHg)
      001 45 Male 120/80
      002 55 Female 130/85

    Statistical reporting

    Statistical reporting in a manuscript involves describing the statistical methods used to analyze the data and reporting the results accurately. This section provides transparency and reproducibility by detailing how the data were analyzed and interpreted.

    • Description of Statistical Methods
      • Authors should describe the statistical methods used to analyze the data, including the types of analyses (e.g., t-tests, ANOVA, regression), software packages (e.g., SPSS, R, SAS) used for analysis, and any specific settings or parameters.
      • Provide information on any assumptions made in the statistical analysis, such as normality, homogeneity of variance, or independence of observations.
      • Clearly explain any data transformations or adjustments made to meet the assumptions of the statistical tests.
    • Presentation of Results
      • Report the results of statistical analyses in a clear and organized manner, using appropriate summary statistics (e.g., means, standard deviations, confidence intervals) and measures of effect size (e.g., Cohen's d, odds ratios).
      • Include tables or figures to present complex statistical results, ensuring that they are labeled and explained adequately.
      • Avoid selective reporting by including all relevant statistical tests conducted, even if they did not yield significant results.
    • Interpretation of Findings
      • Interpret the statistical findings in the context of the research question or hypothesis, discussing their implications and significance.
      • Address any limitations or assumptions of the statistical analyses and their potential impact on the interpretation of the results.
      • Compare the results with existing literature and discuss any discrepancies or similarities observed.
    • Reporting of Uncertainty
      • Acknowledge and report uncertainties associated with the statistical analyses, including confidence intervals, p-values, and effect sizes.
      • Avoid overstating the significance of results or making unsupported claims based on statistical findings alone.
      • Consider the practical significance of results in addition to their statistical significance.

      For Example:

    1. Description of Statistical Methods:
      • "Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey tests to compare mean differences between groups. Statistical significance was set at p 0.05. Assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variances were checked using Shapiro-Wilk and Levene's tests, respectively. No violations of these assumptions were found."
    2. Presentation of Results:
      • "The mean difference in scores between the experimental and control groups was 2.45 points (95% CI [1.32, 3.58], p = 0.002), indicating a significant effect of the intervention. Figure 1 displays the distribution of scores for each group."
    3. Interpretation of Findings:
      • "The results suggest that the intervention significantly improved participants' cognitive performance compared to the control condition. However, it's important to note that the effect size was moderate (Cohen's d = 0.60), indicating a meaningful but not overwhelming impact."

    Striking Image

    The Striking Image serves as a visual representation of the research findings or concepts discussed in the manuscript. It is strategically chosen to capture the reader's attention and enhance the overall presentation of the research. Here are the key considerations for selecting a Striking Image:

    • Captivating Visual: The image should be visually captivating, drawing the reader's attention and prompting further exploration of the manuscript. It should effectively convey the main message or theme of the research.
    • Relevance to Research: The Striking Image should be directly relevant to the content of the manuscript, highlighting key findings, concepts, methodologies, or implications discussed in the text.
    • High Quality: The image should be of high quality with clear resolution and sharp detail. It should be visually appealing even when reproduced in different formats or sizes.
    • Consistent with Journal Guidelines: The selection of the Striking Image should adhere to the guidelines provided by the journal regarding image formatting, resolution, and copyright permissions.
    • Ethical Considerations: Authors should ensure that the image complies with ethical standards and regulations governing research integrity, including proper attribution and permissions for any copyrighted material.

      For Example:

    1. Photograph of Experimental Setup: A high-resolution photograph of a laboratory experiment setup, showcasing intricate instrumentation and experimental procedures relevant to the research.
    2. Graph or Chart Illustrating Key Findings: A visually compelling graph or chart presenting key research findings, trends, or comparisons in a clear and accessible format.
    3. Microscopic Image of Biological Specimen: A magnified microscopic image of a biological specimen, such as cells, tissues, or organisms, providing insights into cellular structures or biological processes.
    4. Infographic Summarizing Research Methods: An infographic summarizing the methodologies or techniques used in the research, illustrating the workflow or experimental protocols in an engaging visual format.

    Additional Information Requested at Submission

    Submitting a manuscript to a journal often requires authors to provide additional information beyond the manuscript itself. This information helps editors and reviewers assess the suitability of the manuscript for publication and ensures transparency and integrity in the publication process.

    • Financial Disclosure Statement

      The Financial Disclosure Statement requires authors to disclose any financial relationships, affiliations, or interests that could be perceived as potential conflicts of interest regarding the research presented in the manuscript. This includes financial support, funding sources, grants, honoraria, consulting fees, equity ownership, or any other financial relationships with organizations that may have a vested interest in the research outcomes. Key Points to Include:

      • Funding Sources: Authors should specify any funding sources or financial support received for the research. This may include grants, scholarships, fellowships, or other forms of financial assistance provided by funding agencies, governmental organizations, foundations, or industry sponsors.
      • Honoraria and Consulting Fees: Authors should disclose any honoraria, consulting fees, or other forms of compensation received for services rendered related to the research. This may include payments for speaking engagements, advisory roles, expert testimony, or other professional services provided to industry partners or organizations.
      • Equity Ownership: Authors should declare any equity ownership, stock options, or financial investments in companies or organizations relevant to the research. This includes ownership of stocks, shares, or other financial instruments that may create a potential conflict of interest.
      • Employment or Affiliations: Authors should disclose any employment, affiliations, or positions held in organizations that may have a financial interest in the research. This includes employment in industry, consulting firms, pharmaceutical companies, or other commercial entities with a stake in the research outcomes.
      • Other Financial Interests: Authors should also disclose any other financial interests or relationships that could potentially influence the research or its interpretation. This may include patents, royalties, intellectual property rights, or other financial arrangements with commercial entities or sponsors.

      For Example:

    1. "The authors declare that they have no financial conflicts of interest regarding the research presented in this manuscript."
    2. "Dr. John Smith has received research funding from XYZ Pharmaceuticals for unrelated projects. However, the funders had no role in the design, conduct, analysis, or interpretation of the current study."
    3. "Dr. Jane Doe is a consultant for ABC Biotech and has received honoraria for speaking engagements. The authors declare that this relationship did not influence the conduct or reporting of the research."
    4. "Dr. Michael Johnson owns stock in DEF Medical Devices, a company that manufactures medical equipment related to the research topic. However, the authors declare that this does not affect the integrity or objectivity of the study."
    • Competing Interests

      Competing interests refer to any circumstances or relationships that may influence the objectivity, integrity, or impartiality of the research or its interpretation. These interests can arise from financial, professional, personal, or intellectual affiliations that could potentially bias the author's judgment or affect the outcome of the research. It is essential for authors to disclose any competing interests to ensure transparency and maintain the credibility of the research process.

      • Financial Interests: These include financial relationships or affiliations that may create a conflict of interest.
      • Professional Affiliations: These involve professional relationships or affiliations that may influence the research process.
      • Personal Relationships: These encompass personal relationships or connections that may impact the research.
      • Intellectual Biases: These involve intellectual or ideological biases that may influence the research or its interpretation.

      For Example:

    1. "Dr. Smith has received research funding from Company XYZ, which produces pharmaceutical products related to the topic of the research."
    2. "Professor Johnson serves on the scientific advisory board of Organization ABC, which has a stake in the research outcomes."
    3. "Professor Brown has published extensively on the benefits of a particular treatment approach, potentially influencing the interpretation of the current research results."
    • Manuscripts Disputing Published Work

      When researchers encounter inconsistencies, discrepancies, or methodological concerns in previously published research, they may choose to write a manuscript disputing the findings or conclusions of the original work. Manuscripts disputing published work aim to critically evaluate the validity, reliability, and generalizability of the findings, often through rigorous analysis, replication attempts, or alternative interpretations of the data. These manuscripts undergo peer review to ensure that the arguments presented are based on sound scientific reasoning and evidence.

      Key Characteristics:

      • Critical Analysis: Manuscripts disputing published work typically involve a critical analysis of the original research, highlighting potential flaws, biases, or limitations in the methodology, data interpretation, or conclusions.
      • Alternative Explanations: Authors may propose alternative explanations, hypotheses, or interpretations of the data that challenge the conclusions drawn in the original study.
      • Replication Attempts: In some cases, manuscripts disputing published work may include replication attempts or independent analyses of the data to verify or refute the original findings.
      • Transparent Reporting: Authors are expected to transparently report their methods, analyses, and findings, providing sufficient detail to allow readers and reviewers to evaluate the validity and reliability of the arguments presented.

      For Example:

    1. "Reanalysis of Clinical Trial Data: A manuscript disputes the findings of a previously published clinical trial claiming the efficacy of a particular drug in treating a specific medical condition. The disputing manuscript reanalyzes the trial data, accounting for potential confounding variables and biases, and concludes that the drug's efficacy may have been overstated or misrepresented."
    2. "Reinterpretation of Paleontological Evidence: A manuscript disputes the interpretations of fossil evidence presented in a previously published study on the evolutionary relationships of a certain species. The disputing manuscript offers a reinterpretation of the fossil data, proposing alternative phylogenetic hypotheses and evolutionary scenarios that challenge the conclusions of the original research. The authors provide anatomical, morphological, and phylogenetic analyses to support their revised interpretations and suggest avenues for future research in the field."
    • Related Manuscripts

      When submitting a manuscript to a journal, authors may be asked to provide information about any related manuscripts that are relevant to the research being presented. This allows editors to assess the originality and novelty of the submitted work and avoid duplication or overlapping publications. Related Manuscripts could include:

      • Previous Submissions: Manuscripts that have been previously submitted to other journals but are closely related to the research being presented. Authors should provide details about the previous submissions, including the journal names and submission dates.
      • Companion Papers: Related manuscripts that are part of a series of papers addressing different aspects of the same research project or study. Authors may include information about companion papers that provide additional data, analyses, or interpretations relevant to the submitted manuscript.
      • Preprints: Manuscripts that have been posted as preprints on preprint servers or repositories. Preprints are early versions of research manuscripts that have not yet undergone peer review. Authors should disclose any preprints related to the submitted manuscript to ensure transparency and allow editors and reviewers to assess the prior dissemination of the research findings.
      • Collaborative Works: Manuscripts that are part of collaborative research projects involving multiple authors or research teams. Authors should provide information about related manuscripts authored by collaborators or co-authors that complement or expand upon the research presented in the submitted manuscript.

      For Example:

    1. "Previous Submission: A companion paper titled 'Exploring the Genetic Basis of Disease X' was previously submitted to Journal ABC on [Date]. The current manuscript builds upon the findings presented in that paper by focusing on the environmental factors influencing disease susceptibility."
    2. "Companion Paper: This manuscript is part of a series of papers investigating the effects of Climate Change on Coral Reefs. A companion paper titled 'Impacts of Rising Sea Temperatures on Coral Bleaching Events' was recently published in Journal XYZ (Smith et al., 2023). The current manuscript extends our analysis to include the effects of ocean acidification on coral reef biodiversity."
    • Preprints

      Preprints serve as a means for researchers to share their work with the scientific community without the delays associated with traditional peer review and publication processes. They are typically hosted on preprint servers or repositories, where they are freely accessible to anyone with an internet connection. Preprints can encompass a wide range of research outputs, including manuscripts, articles, conference papers, and data sets.

      Key Features of Preprints:

      • Rapid Dissemination: Preprints enable researchers to share their findings quickly with colleagues and peers, facilitating collaboration and accelerating the pace of scientific discovery.
      • Open Access: Preprints are freely accessible to anyone, without the need for a subscription or payment. This promotes transparency and equitable access to scientific knowledge.
      • Feedback Mechanism: Preprints provide an opportunity for authors to receive feedback from the scientific community before formal peer review. This feedback can help authors improve their manuscripts and address any potential issues or concerns.
      • Versioning: Preprint servers often support versioning, allowing authors to update their preprints with revisions or corrections based on feedback received from the community or during the peer review process.
      • Citation and Recognition: Preprints can be cited in academic publications and grant applications, providing authors with a means of receiving credit and recognition for their work before formal publication.

      For Example:

    1. "arXiv: Established in 1991, arXiv is one of the oldest and most well-known preprint servers, primarily focused on physics, mathematics, computer science, and related disciplines."
    2. "bioRxiv: Launched in 2013, bioRxiv is a preprint server for biology, providing a platform for researchers to share their findings in areas such as molecular biology, genetics, neuroscience, and ecology."
    3. "medRxiv: Introduced in 2019, medRxiv is a preprint server for health sciences and clinical research, allowing researchers to disseminate their work in areas such as medicine, epidemiology, public health, and related fields."

    Guidelines for Specific Study Types

    In order to ensure rigor, reproducibility, and adherence to community standards, manuscripts submitted to the journal must follow specific guidelines tailored to the type of study being reported.

    • Registered Reports

      Registered Reports offer several benefits for both researchers and the scientific community. By preregistering their study protocols, authors can reduce the likelihood of publication bias, selective reporting, and HARKing (Hypothesizing After the Results are Known). Additionally, Registered Reports promote methodological rigor, transparency, and reproducibility by ensuring that key aspects of the study design, analysis plan, and data collection procedures are determined in advance and undergo rigorous peer review.

      Registered Reports typically follow these key steps:

      • Preregistration of Study Protocol: Authors submit a detailed study protocol outlining the research question, hypotheses, study design, methods, and analysis plan to the journal for peer review. This protocol undergoes thorough evaluation by expert reviewers and editors to assess its scientific validity, methodological soundness, and feasibility.
      • In-Principle Acceptance: Upon successful peer review, the journal grants in-principle acceptance to the registered protocol, indicating a commitment to publishing the final results of the study, irrespective of the outcomes obtained. This helps mitigate publication bias and incentivizes researchers to conduct high-quality research regardless of the results.
      • Transparent Reporting: Registered Reports emphasize transparent reporting of research methods, procedures, and analyses. Authors are encouraged to provide detailed descriptions of experimental protocols, data collection procedures, statistical analyses, and potential limitations upfront in the registered protocol.
      • Methodological Rigor: By preregistering their study protocols, authors demonstrate a commitment to methodological rigor and transparency in research. Registered Reports encourage thoughtful consideration of study design, sample size determination, statistical power analysis, and potential sources of bias before data collection begins.
      • Reproducibility and Replicability: Registered Reports enhance the reproducibility and replicability of scientific research by promoting transparency in study design and analysis. By preregistering their protocols, authors provide a blueprint for future replication attempts and facilitate the verification of research findings by the scientific community.

      For Example:

    1. Smith, J., & Johnson, E. (2020). Registered Report: The Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Stress Reduction in College Students. Journal of Mindfulness Studies, 10(2), 123-135.
      • This Registered Report outlines a preregistered protocol for investigating the effects of mindfulness meditation on stress reduction in college students. The study protocol includes details on the research question, hypotheses, study design, methods, and analysis plan.
    2. Brown, A., et al. (2021). Registered Report: Investigating the Neural Mechanisms of Decision-Making in Adolescents with ADHD. Journal of Neurobehavioral Research, 15(4), 321-335.
      • This Registered Report presents a preregistered protocol for examining the neural mechanisms of decision-making in adolescents with ADHD. The protocol undergoes peer review and in-principle acceptance by the journal, ensuring transparency and rigor in the research process.
  • Research Involving Human Subjects

    Human subjects are subject to regulation in research. No procedure or study that is not specifically exempted or a part of an approved protocol should be carried out. Regulations that apply cover things like maintaining documentation and records, adhering to study protocols that have received IRB clearance, getting permission before making changes, and reporting adverse events. The task of locating and observing all applicable laws falls to the investigators. When discussing research involving human subjects, human materials, human tissues, or human data, authors must acknowledge that the studies complied with the requirements of the 1975 Helsinki Declaration (, revised in 2013. Point 23 of this declaration states that an institutional review board (IRB) or other appropriate ethical committee approval is required before researching to ensure that the study complies with local, national, and international standards. The section's Institutional Review Board Statement of the the article must at the very least include a statement containing the project identification code, the date of approval, and the name of the ethics committee or institutional review board.

    1. For Example:

    2. Clinical Trial on New Drug Treatment
      • A study evaluating the efficacy and safety of a new drug treatment for a specific medical condition in human participants. Participants are randomized into treatment and control groups, and outcomes such as symptom improvement and adverse reactions are assessed.
    3. Survey on Health Behaviors
      • A survey conducted to assess health behaviors and lifestyle factors among a sample of adults in a community. Participants are asked to complete questionnaires on topics such as diet, exercise, smoking habits, and medical history.
  • Reserach Involving the Use of Animals

    For research involving animals, the authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were under the standards outlined in the the eighth edition of “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” ( published by the National Academy of Sciences, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.).

    • Research work on animals should be carried out under the NC3Rs ARRIVE Guidelines. For In Vivo Experiments, please visit
    • Authors should clearly state the name of the approval committee, highlighting that legal and ethical approvals were obtained before initiation of the research work carried out on animals, and the experiments were performed under the relevant guidelines and regulations stated below.
    • US authors should cite compliance with the US National Research Council& Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
    • The US Public Health Services; Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals; and Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals
    • UK authors should conform to UK legislation under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 Amendment Regulations (SI 2012/3039).
    • European authors outside the UK should conform to Directive 2010/63/EU
    • Research in animals must adhere to ethical guidelines of The Basel Declaration and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) has also published ethical guidelines.
    • The manuscript must include a declaration of compliance with relevant guidelines (e.g., the revised Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 in the UK and Directive 2010/63/EU in Europe) and/or relevant permissions or licenses obtained by the IUCN Policy Statement on Research Involving Species at Risk of Extinction and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
  • Research Involving Cell Lines

    Cell lines are populations of cells that have been removed from their original tissue source and cultured under controlled laboratory conditions. They are immortalized and can proliferate indefinitely, making them valuable tools for experimental research. Cell lines are widely used in various fields of biomedical research, including cancer biology, immunology, virology, and pharmacology.

    1. For Example:

    2. HeLa Cells: Derived from cervical cancer cells taken from Henrietta Lacks in 1951, HeLa cells are one of the most widely used and extensively studied human cell lines in biomedical research.
    3. HEK293 Cells: Human embryonic kidney 293 cells are commonly used for transient transfection and protein expression studies. They were derived from primary embryonic kidney cells transformed with adenovirus type 5 DNA.

    Review Before Submission Process

    The review process is an essential part of publishing high-quality research. Authors are encouraged to review their manuscript thoroughly before submission to ensure that it meets the standards of the journal. Here are some steps that authors can take to review their manuscript before submission:

    • Content Review: Authors should carefully review the content of their manuscript to ensure that it is relevant, accurate, and informative. The manuscript should clearly convey the research objectives, methods, results, and conclusions. The content should also be logically organized and easy to follow. We would also suggest you to communicate with your co-authors, supervisors and colleagues and ask for help if you are writing a manuscript for the first time.<< /li>
    • Formatting Review: Authors should ensure that their manuscript adheres to the journal's formatting guidelines. This includes margins, spacing, font size, and citation format. Authors should also check for consistency in formatting throughout the manuscript.
    • Language Review: Authors should ensure that the language used in the manuscript is clear, concise, and grammatically correct. Authors may consider having their manuscript proofread by a native English speaker or professional language editor to ensure that the language is of high quality.
    • Tables and Figures Review: Authors should carefully review all tables and figures to ensure that they are clear, informative, and accurately convey the data. Tables and figures should be numbered, titled, and referenced in the text.
    • References Review: Authors should ensure that all references are accurate, complete, and follow the appropriate citation format. The citation format used should be consistent throughout the manuscript.
    • Peer Review: Finally, authors may consider having their manuscript reviewed by colleagues or other experts in the field before submission. This can provide valuable feedback and help to improve the quality of the manuscript.

    Publication Ethics

    The journal is committed to upholding the highest ethical standards in publishing and expects all authors, reviewers, and editors to adhere to these standards. The following guidelines are in place to ensure that the publication process is fair, transparent, and unbiased:

    • Editorial independence: The editorial team of the journal is responsible for making decisions on which manuscripts to publish based on the quality and relevance of the research, regardless of any external factors such as the author's institutional affiliation or funding source.
    • Confidentiality: The Journal maintains strict confidentiality with respect to all submitted manuscripts, and will not disclose any information about the manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, and editorial team.
    • Transfer of Copyright: Upon acceptance for publication, the authors are required to transfer the copyright of the manuscript to the publisher. This ensures that the publisher has the legal right to publish and distribute the manuscript.
    • Plagiarism and copyright violations: All submitted manuscripts are screened for plagiarism and copyright violations. Authors must ensure that their work is original and has not been previously published or under consideration for publication elsewhere. Proper citation and attribution of sources must be provided.
    • Copyright and permissions: Authors are responsible for obtaining the necessary permissions for any copyrighted material used in their manuscript, such as images, tables, and figures. Proper attribution and citation must also be provided for such material.
    • Data Fabrication and Falsification: Authors must ensure that their research is conducted and reported honestly and accurately. Data fabrication and falsification are serious violations of ethical standards and will not be tolerated.
    • Authorship and Acknowledgments: Authorship should be based on substantial contributions to the research and writing of the manuscript. All authors must have reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript prior to submission. Acknowledgments should be provided for individuals or organizations that provided support or contributed to the research in a minor or indirect manner.
    • Open access and licensing: The journal offers open access publishing options, and authors may choose to publish their work under a Creative Commons license to allow for wider dissemination and use of their research.
    • Corrections and retractions: The journal will issue corrections or retractions if errors or inaccuracies are discovered in published manuscripts, and will work with authors to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the published work.
    • Ethical Approval: For studies involving human or animal subjects, authors must provide evidence of ethical approval obtained from an institutional review board or ethics committee.